Articles by Larry Anderson
One lesson of Grenfell is how many fire system technicians operate without the appropriate qualifications. Since the Grenfell tragedy, Dame Judith Hackitt has called for all relevant trades to hold formal qualifications, and for industry to implement a system in which clients and end users can be assured that operatives are fully competent. Another lesson is that fire service audits of buildings are no longer fit for purpose. For instance, the current system does not require proof that a fire system was installed by a “competent person.” Fire safety in commercial buildings “The general public would be horrified to learn that someone can fit a fire safety system in a commercial building without any proper qualifications or licence,” says Tom Brookes, Managing Director of Lindum Fire Services Ltd., former Chairman of the British Fire Consortium (BFC), and current Chairman of the Fire and Security Association. When it comes to competency, the whole industry needs to up its game" “When it comes to competency, the whole industry needs to up its game,” says Brookes. “Some larger companies are upskilling their staff and moving towards formal qualifications. If small- and medium-sized enterprises do not follow suit, they will fall behind and may be excluded from the marketplace altogether.” Working Group 2 on installer competence Working Group 2 on installer competence was established after the publication of Dame Judith Hackitt’s final report last year, under the joint leadership of Build UK and the Fire Sector Federation. The group has discussed extensively the need for systems engineers to be suitably qualified and able to demonstrate their competence. “In my opinion, there is too much focus on rival competency schemes rather than overall industry outcomes, which somewhat muddies the waters,” says Brookes. “However, one thing that has become crystal clear is that all fire and emergency systems engineers will likely need to hold a Level 3 qualification in the future.” Training provided BFC, FIA and IFEDA Although quality training is provided through the British Fire Consortium (BFC), Fire Industry Association (FIA), Independent Fire Engineering & Distributors Association (IFEDA) and others, historically there have been no Ofqual-approved qualifications for the fire sector. (The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation [Ofqual] is a non-ministerial government department that regulates qualifications, exams and tests.) Changes are afoot, however. In England, the Fire, Emergency Systems and Security trailblazer apprenticeship attracted around 300 new starts last year. The FIA have replaced their 20-year-old training programmes with a new system that will enable technicians who complete the series to achieve their Level 3 qualifications. Since the Grenfell tragedy, Dame Judith Hackitt has called for all relevant trades to hold formal qualifications BS5839-1:2017 Ofqual-approved qualification The awarding organization EAL are launching a BS5839-1:2017 Ofqual-approved qualification in August 2019. This will allow previously trained engineers to sit an exam and gain a Level 3 award demonstrating up-to-date knowledge. Practical skills testing for more experienced technicians, outside of an apprenticeship, is something FSA are currently working hard on with partners including ECA, NET and ECS. “Our aim is for a few options to become available for operatives to gain some sort of practical competence certification,” says Brookes. “More technological solutions are now being considered for competency evaluation, such as uploading video assessments of candidates to a portal for assessors. This is already used for some NVQ type assessments and widely used in the USA. It may be just what our sector needs at this moment in time.” 'Accountable Person' role Latest Government report following Grenfell states they are looking to create a role in commercial buildings The latest Government report following Grenfell states they are looking to create a role in commercial buildings called the “Accountable Person.” This person will have a legal responsibility to ensure people working on systems are competent. While only for high rise and high-risk buildings, like all developments, it will likely spread throughout the sector. “For as long as I have been in the fire industry trade bodies have called upon the fire authorities and Government to legislate to stop unskilled workers installing and maintaining fire safety equipment,” says Brookes. He notes that both independent third-party certification of businesses and CSCS partner card schemes like ECS for individuals are voluntary arrangements. To date, neither Government nor fire services insist either scheme is used by a fire protection company. “If, heaven forbid, we witnessed another tragedy like Grenfell tomorrow, sadly I suspect the outcome would be very much the same,” says Brookes. “However, looking further ahead, I am confident buildings will be safer once new legislation comes into force and effectively eliminates the threat of incompetent and unqualified fire and emergency system engineers.”
When it comes to physical fitness, every fire department’s approach is different. Some have invested in a fitness initiative, others haven’t. Some struggle to create culture change and an environment where physical fitness is a priority and not an afterthought. Other departments don’t know where to begin, or they approach the issue of health and fitness randomly with approaches that may not be based on science. Firefighters physical health Worse, some departments embrace systems that are too strenuous or likely to cause injury. Using heavy weights can cause harm. Sometimes firefighters exercise beyond the point of fatigue. Basketball may be good exercise, but the risk of ankle sprains and other injuries outweighs the benefits. Any exercise program should be science-based and should “engineer out” the likelihood of injury" “Any exercise program should be science-based and should “engineer out” the likelihood of injury”, says Bryan Fass, Founder and President of Injury Prevention Systems and the Fit Responder. He works nationally with departments to reduce injuries and improve fitness for first responders. Need for a fitness policy at fire stations “Some departments have a ‘fitness policy’ that says firemen should work out whenever they can,” says Fass. “Others have no policy at all, and some have to deal with cities, command staff and unions – it’s hard to have a focused goal because everybody wants something different.” Some departments have built a centrally located fitness facility that crews from multiple firehouses can use on a rotating basis. Others may simply have an arrangement with a local health club that is agreeable to a fire truck being parked out front. A principal benefit of a physical fitness program is avoidance of on-the-job injuries Avoiding on-the-job physical injuries A principal benefit of a physical fitness program is avoidance of on-the-job injuries. The number one physical affliction for firefighters and EMTs is low-back injury. Firefighters also suffer shoulder injuries from pulling; or knee injuries from tripping, stepping in a hole, or climbing in and out of a truck. Injuries also tend to be less severe – and to heal more quickly – among physically fit patients. Fit firefighters are less likely to suffer from heart attacks in a high-stress/high-heat environment. Fitness also helps to offset fatigue. Research shows that a “fit but fatigued” firefighter will outperform, have less risk of injury and better cardiac health than an “unfit but fresh” firefighter in a high-stress/high-heat environment. In short, better fitness equates to better work capacity and fewer injuries. Addressing wide fitness level disparities When it comes to fitness, a concern is the wide disparity among fitness levels of firefighters When it comes to fitness, a concern is the wide disparity among fitness levels of firefighters. There are young firefighters who are relatively fit working out side-by-side with an aging workforce that isn’t equipped for the same level of activity. In the middle are some motivated souls who are more health-conscious. An approach that works for all three groups is to introduce activities with a low-risk-high-reward ratio. Regularly scheduled exercises should cater to the lowest-common-denominator participants. Exercise programs should be risk-averse. Importance of physical fitness programs A big need for fire departments is to have more structure in their physical fitness programs. “The need for structure is there, but every department is different,” says Fass. In fact, a misconception about firefighter fitness is that they have to train all the time. Rather, a balanced approach works best. When scheduling exercise routines for each shift, different kinds of workouts should be scheduled about two days apart. One day might be high intensity; another might be a mobility/recovery workout; a third might be primal lifting, squats and deadlifts; and a fourth might be stability/mild cardio (core training). The light schedule assumes that more fitness-conscious firefighters would work out more strenuously on their own time. A big need for fire departments is to have more structure in their physical fitness programs Incorporating high nutrition in firefighters’ diet Some departments embrace the concepts of good nutrition and how they can impact everything from a firefighter’s fatigue to their ability to survive on the fire ground; others revolt and won’t even listen. There are geographical differences, too: The West Coast is more health-conscious than the Northwest or South. Eliminating pain, increasing mobility and fighting fatigue are prerequisites for an exercise program Eliminating pain, increasing mobility and fighting fatigue are prerequisites for an exercise program. Participants should be taught to self-treat pain in the 16 “trigger points” around the body using therapeutic tools, such as a foam roller or tennis ball. There are tools to target each area of pain. Adopting a “mobility program” involves stretching for greater flexibility and mobility. And combatting fatigue means ensuring that firefighters get enough sleep. Incentives for fit firefighters Fears for their job security may be an unspoken but real concern among firemen presented with a new fitness program: “Get fit, or else….” Fitness programs should allow plenty of time for participants to get back into shape,” says Fass. Some departments offer incentives to employees who achieve better fitness, such as a cash award, gift card, or extra time off. Some offer incentives to do tests based on NFPA 1582, which outlines an occupational medical program to reduce risks and provide for the health, safety, and effectiveness of firefighters.
The Los Angeles Fire Department (LAFD) is setting the standard for the use of drones in firefighting applications. As one of the first major metropolitan fire departments to have a significant drone program, LAFD has flown more than 175 missions in less than two years, including the Skirball fire that burned the Bel Air neighborhood in December 2017. Since Skyfire Consulting, a drone services and training company, helped LAFD secure a Certificate of Authorization (COA) for the drone program, the agency has established a training regimen, secured new products and equipment and grown their program to 17 licensed pilots and a fleet of nine drones. When privacy worries created a backlash in the community, the LAFD met the concerns head-on and ensured their standard operating procedures (SOPs) addressed any privacy issues. Incorporate Drone Technology LAFD started a Pilots Training and Ground School Course earlier in 2019 A report to the Board of Fire Commissioners in March from LAFD Chief Ralph Terrazas outlined the program’s progress. LAFD started a Pilots Training and Ground School Course earlier in 2019 to teach flight skills concepts and legal aspects. LAFD Battalion Chief Richard Fields told the commission the LAFD’s drone program has become a national standard. “We are mentioned in literature, we are mentioned in conferences, we are mentioned across the city family as well as outside agencies,” Fields commented, as reported by NBC4 in Los Angeles. In April, drone technology company DJI announced a Solution Development Partnership with the LAFD to create, test and deploy DJI drones as an emergency response and preparedness tool. The agreement will provide the LAFD with access to new technologies, training and support to incorporate drone technology in its operations. Thermal Imaging Cameras LAFD flies DJI Matrice 600 Series and DJI Phantom 4 Pro drones equipped with visual and thermal imaging cameras that provide real-time video and data transmission to incident commanders. LAFD will continue to use DJI drone technology across a variety of situations including hot-spot identification and aerial mapping to help manage wildfire response, as well as incident response for swiftwater rescues, hazmat operations, and urban search and rescue missions. LAFD will continue to use DJI drone technology across a variety of situations “The LAFD has been working through a pragmatic approach to adopting drone technology for several years, including developing policies and procedures that define clear use case scenarios and building awareness among the general public about the positive life- and property-saving benefits drone technology can provide,” says Fields. “[The partnership with DJI] gives the Department access to developments such as drones equipped with thermal cameras that will give incident commanders a real-time bird’s-eye perspective,” he adds. Complex Urban Environments When considering the benefits of drones, departments of any size can be inspired by LAFD’s example “Combining advanced drone technology with new software tools will help bridge the gap between [the capabilities of] helicopters and [those of] firefighters on the ground, allowing us to address life-threatening situations faster and more effectively than ever before.” The LAFD’s drone program is one of 910 public safety organizations in the U.S. deploying drones for life saving activities, according to the Bard Center for the Study of the Drone (May 2018). “While the LAFD program shows how drones can succeed when operated within expansive, urban areas by a large department, drone technology is valuable to municipalities of any size,” says Romeo Durscher, Director of Public Safety Integration at DJI. “Through our two-way collaboration [with LAFD], we will receive valuable insight into the complexities of deploying drones for emergency situations in one of the most complex urban environments in the nation,” says Bill Chen, Enterprise Partnerships Manager at DJI. When considering the benefits of drones, departments of any size can be inspired by LAFD’s example.
FIREX International, 18-20 June, 2019, at ExCel London will feature 25-plus hours of seminars and panel discussions along with an exhibition of 130-plus manufacturers showcasing products for fire safety. A Sprinkler and Suppression Presentation Area will highlight the important category. Also, for the fourth year, the International Tall Building Fire Safety Conference will take place alongside FIREX International. There will be 18,000 fire prevention and protection professionals from over 70 countries in attendance at FIREX International. Seminars and panel debates, held in the dedicated Expertise and Guidance Theatre, will include sessions covering tall building safety, passive fire protection, case studies, and more. One session will consider how the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union will impact fire safety laws and the fire industry. Implications of fire safety regulations A presentation will cover the development of new tests to assess video smoke and flame detectorsThe aftermath of the Grenfell fire will be the backdrop of several sessions. One will address the competency of fire, emergency and security systems technicians in the post-Grenfell era, presented by Fire and Security Association Chairman Tom Brookes. Also, a panel discussion will consider the process control and record-keeping requirements of Dame Judith Hackitt's proposed ‘golden thread of information’ that spans regulatory, design, compliance, construction and operational management functions. Another session will speak to post-Grenfell implications of fire safety and future regulations, and there will be a summary of the government response to the Hackitt/ADB review and its impact on passive fire protection. Other topics include training, testing, and fire risk assessment. A case study will highlight the importance of smoke alarms in rented properties. A session on defining Fire Industry Association (FIA) Qualifications will address the impact of best practice, legislation and standards. A presentation will cover the development of new tests to assess video smoke and flame detectors. And there will be an update on industry efforts to create an overarching competence body for the fire safety sector. Thousands of products on display The Passive Protection Zone offers an opportunity for delegates to develop their knowledge of passive fire protectionFIREX International caters to everyone within the fire safety buying chain from manufacturers, distributors, installers, integrators, consultants to end users. With tens of thousands of products on display, attendees can test and try them out hands-on. The largest presence at the show will be the Fire Solutions stand, organized by Halma, which will feature six leading suppliers of fire safety technology from the same commercial family hosted at a single stand. The featured exhibitors will be Advanced, Apollo Fire Detectors, Argus Security, FFE UK, Klaxon and LAN Control Systems. The Passive Protection Zone offers an opportunity for delegates to develop their knowledge of passive fire protection via a variety of seminars and workshops. Plus, Association for Specialist Fire Protection (ASFP) member companies will be located around the zone, displaying related products. Tall Building Fire Safety Conference The 6th International Tall Building Fire Safety Conference will focus on innovation, drones, fire science and more. Topics on Day 1 will be fire engineering, fire testing and fire science in tall buildings. Day 2 will address fire risk management, insurance and construction in tall buildings. Day 3 will focus on firefighting in tall buildings. FIREX International is co-located with IFSEC International, Facilities Show, Safety & Health Expo and Field Service Management Expo, catering to those working across many platforms, including building management, and protection and safety of people and information.
More firemen die of suicide each year than are killed in the line of duty. For example, in 2017, at least 103 firefighters and/or Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers in the United States committed suicide, but only 93 firefighters died in the line of duty. Mental Health Disorder Effects The grim statistic is a wakeup call to the tragic effects of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide on firefighters and EMS workers. Between 14.6 and 22% of firefighters experience PTSD, 11% suffer depression and almost half (46.8%) have had thoughts of suicide at least once. These insights into the mental health of firefighters and EMS workers are contained in a white paper commissioned by the Ruderman Foundation, and authored by Dr. Miriam Heyman, senior program officer. Increasing PTSD cases among firefighters PTSD results from constant exposure to death and destruction PTSD results from constant exposure to death and destruction. Experiencing PTSD is akin to persistently re-experiencing troubling events in the form of flashbacks or nightmares, trouble sleeping or concentrating, irritability and feelings of isolation and self-blame. Other findings highlighted in the white paper include: Paid firefighters are more likely to receive mental health service through their departments than their volunteer counterparts. PTSD and depression rates among firefighters have been found to be as much as 5 times higher than rates in the civilian population. Even when suicide doesn’t occur, untreated mental illness can lead to poor physical health and impaired decision-making. High rates of binge and hazardous drinking behavior have been reported; one study found the rate that respondents reported binge drinking in the previous month was 58%. Shame and stigma attached to mental illness discourage many firefighters from accessing necessary mental health services to help them cope with trauma. Improving mental health of first responders “First responders are heroes who run toward danger every day to save the lives of others, and their work exerts a toll on their mental health,” says Jay Ruderman, President of the Ruderman Family Foundation. “It is our obligation to support them in every way possible and make them feel welcome and able to access life-saving mental health care.” McKenna was shaken by the 2016 suicide of Fairfax County firefighter Nicole Mittendorff Furthermore, the general public remains largely unaware of the issues since the majority of first responder suicides are not covered by the media. Ruderman says departments should encourage or require first responders to access mental health services annually to identify issues early and get needed help. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline “Asking for help was not an option because I was [a] superhero,” says Chris McKenna, a volunteer firefighter and EMT for the Vigilant Hose Company in Emmitsburg, Md. “Nothing could hurt me, and I was afraid what my friends would think,” he told NBC Channel 4 in Washington. “There was one night that I almost committed suicide; I almost became a statistic.” McKenna was shaken by the 2016 suicide of Fairfax County firefighter Nicole Mittendorff. “I want people to know that mental health in the fire service is OK,” McKenna told the TV station. “There’s nothing wrong with asking for help. With the sights that we see every day, it’s OK to have nightmares about it. It’s normal. The brain isn’t going to be able to see something traumatic and just turn it off.” The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-8255 provides a 24-hour crisis line connecting with a crisis worker or a confidential live chat online.
From students to policymakers, safety professionals at all levels will gather at the NFPA Conference & Expo, June 17-20, at the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas. The multi-faceted event will include a technical session addressing standards development, a product and services exhibition, and education sessions about a range of topics, some of them relating to the fire service. The NFPA Technical Meeting, also known as ‘Tech Session,’ is an important element in the standards development process, ensuring that consensus is achieved on proposed changes to NFPA Standards prior to Standards Council review. Education sessions There will be 120-plus education sessions at the Conference & Expo During this meeting, supporters and opponents of certified motions voice their opinions, and qualified NFPA members vote on proposed changes. The three-day Expo, June 17-19, highlights products and services from 350-plus suppliers that are needed to meet and maintain compliance with prevailing codes and standards in the design, construction and operation of buildings and facilities. There will be 120-plus education sessions at the Conference & Expo. Here is a sampling of some of the education sessions related to the fire service. Engaging Local Officials for Wildfire Risk Reduction - Case studies from organizations around the world illustrate the impact of engaging local officials early and effectively to reduce wildfire Integrating Wildfire into Public Education Messaging - The National Fire Protection Association's Wildfire Division will host an interactive conversation about professional development, engaging residents in wildfire risk reduction, and the resources available to help integrate wildfire into public education outreach efforts. Improving Fireground Visibility Using the Internet of Things - A system incorporates cost-effective, lightweight Internet of Things (IoT) devices, an advanced real-time analytics system, and visualization capabilities to enable incident commanders and firefighters to leverage data from the scene in real-time. Enhanced Smoke Alarms and New UL Testing Standard - Research has enhanced technology that can recognize different fire and smoke characteristics created by changes in home design, building techniques, and modern furnishings -- resulting in fewer nuisance alarms. Cancer and Firefighting PPE - The reality is that firefighters are regularly exposed to carcinogen contamination. Considering dermal exposure, inhalation exposure, and off-gassing, how much protection can firefighters expect from their PPE? Wildfire Tactical Support - The UK’s Response to the Record-Breaking 2018 Wildfires. The United Kingdom’s ‘Wildfire Tactical Advisors’ (WTA) model provides valuable lessons on fire department engagement, including experienced fire officers who support the fire incident commanders at wildfire incidents. ROI on Smoke Alarm Installation Programs - Panel members from NFPA and the Red Cross will explore approaches to smoke alarm program evaluation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework to guide discussion. Foam Firefighting Technologies of the Future - Pressurized Instant Foam (Pi Foam) stores the premixed foam solution initially in a calm environment, and then in a pressurized vessel with soluble gas. At the time of the incident, ready-made foam covers the fire without any foam generator. Connected Technologies for Water-Based Fire Protection Systems - Smart Connected Things (SCoT) used in water-based fire protection systems will enable both owners and service providers to determine system status and perform some inspection and testing functions remotely.
There are 200 video cameras keeping watch throughout five Western United States to provide early warning of wildfires. In the near future, the number of cameras will be growing dramatically. Soon there will be more than 1,000 of the cameras in California alone, keeping watch on thousands of acres at risk of destructive events like last year’s deadly Camp and Woolsey wildfires. The ALERTWildfire cameras are installed through a consortium of universities – the University of Nevada, Reno; the University of California, San Diego; and the University of Oregon. Dozens of partners also participate in ALERTWildfire, including the National Forest Service, other government agencies, utilities and other private companies, state and local fire departments, and NGOs (non-governmental organizations). “It takes a lot of people, pushing in the same direction, to deploy cameras rapidly,” says Graham Kent, University of Nevada, Reno. “We are connected into the community, which is a positive thing.” Monitoring Fire Behavior The cameras monitor fire behavior until it is contained, enhance situational awareness during evacuationsThe cameras can provide early warning when a fire starts and help firefighters and first responders scale the resources needed to respond. The cameras also monitor fire behavior until it is contained, enhance situational awareness during evacuations, and ensure fires are monitored appropriately through their demise. ALERTWildfire currently uses Axis Q6055-E outdoor-ready pan-tilt-zoom network cameras that provide 1080p HDTV signals, 32x zoom and low-bandwidth compression. (Earlier versions of similar Axis camera models were also installed previously.) The camera’s robust aluminum casing can withstand temperatures up to 140 degrees F, although the cameras are positioned on the top of towers where temperatures from wildfires are not a factor. In addition to cameras, each installation site includes a range of equipment including hard power or solar power (on about a third of installations), both with battery backups. Resilient, hardened microwave/fiber networks carry video signals from the cameras to servers at University of Nevada, Reno, which makes them available on the Internet. Geolinks, an ALERTWildfire partner, provides resilient Internet connectivity to mountaintops throughout the West. Watching Fires On Mobile Devices Dispatchers around the West have access to video from the cameras, and fire management can move the camera views through their iPhones. Firefighters can even watch fires on their mobile devices while they are en-route to a fire. Cameras are located currently in California, Nevada, Idaho, Washington and Oregon. There have been 85 cameras in place for five years or so, and the number of cameras has more than doubled since the beginning of 2019. Firefighters can even watch fires on their mobile devices while they are en-route to a fire The accelerated installation schedule is courtesy of a new policy of using existing infrastructure for cameras rather than creating it from scratch. The large number of cameras on the horizon for California is being funded by utility companies such as Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison and San Diego Gas and Electric. AI-Enabled Monitoring For Early Warning The public can view the camera feeds and often call 911 to report early warnings of fires, thus providing a kind of crowdsourcing, a fire-warning version of ‘Neighborhood Watch’. In the future, artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to monitor the video feeds to provide early warning. For now, the system is largely used by 911 dispatchers to confirm reports of fires. “Cell phones are so ubiquitous, people call in fires before the AI could react,” says Kent. “We could never beat 911. A model for early detection of wildfires is in operation in San Diego, where San Diego Gas and Electric manages an emergency center that uses sophisticated real-time modeling to predict fire events based on weather conditions, vegetation, etc., tracked on a threat map. The system enables firefighting resources to be deployed quickly at the first hint of fire and thus to avoid a larger, sweeping wildfire event. The system enables firefighting resources to be deployed quickly at the first hint of fire and avoid a larger, sweeping wildfire event “If you can get on top of it quickly enough, it makes all the difference,” says Kent. “In the case of extreme conditions, 10, 20 or 30 minutes can make a big difference.” Other locations are looking to replicate the San Diego model to discover and confirm fires quickly and then reposition assets to respond. Phos-Chek long-term fire retardant, applied by air from a fixed or rotor-wing aircraft, is used to slow or stop the spread of wildland fires. Early Warning Of Other Emergencies Installing more cameras to provide early warning of wildfires is “a grave need in the Western states,” and the system is likely eventually to be deployed in other areas, too. Wildfires can be a challenge in non-Western states such as Florida and Oklahoma, and a similar approach could also be used to provide early warning of other emergencies, such as tornados. “Once we do the West, we will be looking to do the rest of the United States,” says Kent. Currently, the biggest challenge is keeping up with demand. “Our successes have led to a demand to get more cameras out right now,” says Kent. “Funding isn’t the largest issue. The money is there to do it, but we have to be able to scale up quickly, working with partners. It’s a wild ride.” Key words for success of the ALERTWildfire system are “location, location, location” combined with “coverage, coverage, coverage,” says Kent. “We can solve 90 percent of the problem with coverage.”
For the last 200 years, firefighters have been using inefficient manual methods to track their crews’ movement. Incident commanders need to know the location and status of responders on site. Technology adds a new element to tracking crews’ movements. Firefighters on scene can now be electronically tracked to ensure they are rotated out of danger before their allotted time expires. The officer in charge – standing outside the scene with the rugged tablet in hand – can monitor how much air is left in each tank, determine if a firefighter is in trouble, and issue an order to evacuate an individual or entire team. Situational Awareness The public safety sector has been at the forefront of using real-time data to enhance productivity and shorten response times, says Alex Cooper, Director of Public Sector Strategy and Market Development, Zebra Technologies. The first – and perhaps most important – goal of using real-time data has been to keep law enforcement, EMS, and fire and rescue teams safe while simultaneously protecting the people and interests of the communities they serve. Intelligence is increasingly driving new capabilities among first responders and in business Better preparedness and situational awareness are contingent on the availability and proper utilization of real-time data. Real-life emergency response demands real-time data sharing, whether via dispatch communications or jurisdiction-wide records systems, Cooper says. Intelligence is increasingly driving new capabilities among first responders and in business. Complex Public Demands Enterprises today are focused on intelligently connecting their assets, data and people in collaborative mobile workflows, leveraging the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced networks, machine learning and the cloud. Innovation is exploding at ‘the edge,’ where employees make real-time decisions and interact directly with the people they serve. When organizations lack visibility into the movement of assets, they risk inefficient utilization of resources, growing safety concerns, and the inability to react to heightened customer demands, says Cooper. “Many of these risks apply directly to the public sector, as agencies deploy advanced technologies to meet increasingly complex public demands for results and behaviors, often in budget-constrained environments,” he adds. Today’s first responders are more reliant on mobile technologies to increase their situational awareness Fire And Rescue Agencies Successful first responder operations require the availability and proper utilization of real-time data during dispatch, incident response, restoration and investigations. Public safety employees can leverage intelligent devices that support an array of mobile workflows. “Today’s first responders – though highly skilled at their jobs – are more reliant on mobile technologies to increase their situational awareness and safety levels,” says Cooper. “Fire and rescue agencies just can’t afford to continue investing in multiple, ‘single-purpose’ technologies for each of their operating locations.” Technology investments must be vetted in the field to ensure there are tangible benefits which can be weighed against the total cost of ownership, adds Cooper. “It can be difficult to measure the benefit of safety in a traditional ROI model, but its value is unquestioned,” he says. “Ultimately, it’s up to agency leadership to determine which investments should be prioritized.” Lower-Cost Devices “Though there are multiple factors creating obstacles, I believe the biggest one currently is tied to a cost vs. value understanding,” says Cooper. “Many state and local government agencies still utilize a procurement model that favors ‘best price.’ The upfront sticker price does not accurately reflect the total cost of ownership (TCO).” Cooper says another obstacle is seamlessly integrating intelligence into public safety workflows, in a way that is actionable but not disruptive. There’s a lot of misinformation out there about the capabilities and cost of purpose-built solutions “This requires the right combination of applications, analytics, connectivity and user equipment,” he says. There’s a lot of misinformation out there about the capabilities and cost of purpose-built solutions. Many consumer device manufacturers are marketing their mobile devices as ‘rugged,’ so public sector organizations with tight budgets may presume these lower-cost devices will be sufficient. First Responder Actions But, being waterproof or dustproof does not by itself make a device suitable for public safety use. “You have to consider the overall performance, connectivity, security and manageability capabilities of the solution, as this will ultimately be used to capture the raw data that feeds back-end intelligence systems, which will guide first responder actions at the edge,” says Cooper. “Agencies need to be confident that the solutions they invest in will run critical software, interoperate with in-vehicle electronics and provide real-time information for immediate intelligence that enhances situational awareness while strengthening communication and collaboration within and between agencies during emergency response and management operations,” Cooper says. “The best way to accomplish this is to get input and buy-in from procurement and IT decision-makers, as well as end-users and agency leadership including chiefs and commanders. It’s important to take the time to field test solutions to ensure they will be scalable and compatible with future IT architectures.”
Firefighters bravely worked through the night on April 15, 2019, to control and extinguish a fire that was threatening to destroy the beautiful and historic Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. Working nine hours into the early hours of April 16 to extinguish the fire, firefighters are credited with saving the 850-year-old architectural masterpiece from complete destruction, and with rescuing the historic relics and artwork inside the cathedral. 500 Firefighters Involved Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo heralded the firefighters and other emergency workers at a ceremony April 18 French President Emmanuel Macron called the firefighters’ work “exemplary” in a ceremony April 18 at Elysee Palace. Some 500 firefighters were involved in the effort, and about 250 were present when Macron recognized them and said they would be awarded France’s Golden Medal of Honor to recognize their courage and devotion. Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo also heralded the firefighters and other emergency workers at a ceremony April 18 at Paris City Hall. She gave the first responders the title “Citizens of Honor” at the ceremony because of their courage and determination. The Role of Technology Technology – robots and drones – also played a role in saving Notre Dame from complete destruction. Drones flew above the cathedral and provided video footage to guide firefighters. A 1,100-lb. robot, called Colossus, was deployed inside the building where it was too dangerous for firefighters to go. The robot is equipped with cameras to enable firefighters to see what’s happening within danger zones where there is high risk of smoke, burns or falling debris. The robot also directed jets of water, controlled by firefighters outside the cathedral. The firefighters decided to give up on saving the roof, as it was engulfed by flames and turned their efforts to saving the cathedral’s Gothic towers Strategy Involved The firefighters’ strategy is credited with saving the building. Firefighters decided to give up on saving the roof, as it was engulfed by flames. They turned their efforts to saving the cathedral’s Gothic towers. In the end the fire destroyed centuries-old oak beams that supported the cathedral’s stone ceiling, thus weakening the building. “It’s a miracle that the cathedral is still standing and that all the relics were saved,” Lt. Col. Gabriel Plus, a fire brigade spokesman, told The Associated Press. The Cause: A Computer Glitch Cause of the fire has been reported as related to a project to renovate the steeple. It has also been reported that a computer glitch and/or an electrical short-circuit (possibly in an elevator) played a role. A flood of donations has jump-started the rebuilding efforts for Notre Dame Cathedral The fire was first reported when a fire alarm was triggered at 6:20 p.m. on April 15, but no fire was discovered. By 6:43 p.m., another alarm sounded. A Paris newspaper reported that a computer glitch might have misdirected firefighters responding to the initial alarm. Addressing firefighters on April 18, Paris Mayor Hidalgo said: “The night of April 15, we saw your courage without limit, your determination without fault. We saw the moment when you decided to take on all the risk to save Notre Dame, a work of humanity.” The comment was reported by NBC News. Rebuilding The Cathedral A flood of donations has jump-started the rebuilding efforts for Notre Dame Cathedral. Almost a billion dollars has been donated, including donations from wealthy families, corporations, institutions and individuals. President Macron has set a goal of completing repairs within five years – in time for the 2024 Paris Olympics, although there is some skepticism the work can be completed so fast. There are also questions now about the nature of the renovations – whether they will seek to duplicate the previous structure exactly or replace it with alternative designs.
The Communications Workers of America (CWA), a labor union, is promoting awareness of the benefits of FirstNet, an independent government authority established in 2012 to build and deploy the first-ever nationwide broadband network dedicated to first responders. “Once people know what it is, they get excited,” says Bianca Garcia, CWA's FirstNet Program Coordinator. AT&T, the only unionized wireless carrier, was chosen as the private company tasked over 25 years with building out the nationwide network. FirstNet network features include no throttling or slowing down of data speeds, prioritizing calls to avoid congestion on wireless networks, and preemption to enable first responders to communicate and coordinate during emergencies and large events. Public Service Stakeholders If they are looking to upgrade their communications abilities or think about their work in a more comprehensive way" These features ensure the network is always available for use by first responders, including law enforcement, emergency medical service (EMS) and fire departments. The network uses encryption to ensure privacy of sensitive information. Public service stakeholders using a single network can promote coordination of mutual aid and help to solve challenges of communication. CWA is seeking to bridge an education gap among first responders related to FirstNet, including all public safety stakeholders – professional and volunteer, urban and rural. “If they are looking to upgrade their communications abilities or think about their work in a more comprehensive way,” they should embrace FirstNet, says Garcia. Involvement will also ensure first responders help to guide how the network evolves over the next 25 years. “Public service should be at the forefront of how the network develops,” says Garcia. FirstNet-Compatible Devices The union makes information about FirstNet easily available at FirstResponderVoice and through their Facebook page, a monthly newsletter, a downloadable fact sheet, webinars and other venues. FirstResponderVoice is a source of information, news and analysis about FirstNet and public safety communications more generally. FirstResponderVoice is a source of information, news and analysis about FirstNet and public safety communications more generally Among the tools CWA uses is a FirstNet Tool Kit, providing a step-by-step process detailing how first responders and public safety decision-makers can inform their communities about FirstNet and the benefits it brings to their public safety programs as the first interoperable LTE broadband network. The Tool Kit includes a FirstNet fact sheet, introductory PowerPoint, rates for FirstNet plans and a list of FirstNet-compatible devices. It outlines step by step how first responders can subscribe to FirstNet and share sign-up information with colleagues. Emergency Response Stakeholders There are also suggestions on how emergency response stakeholders – including fire department chiefs, colleagues, city council members, volunteer first responders and other emergency-response workers – can educate one another on FirstNet. FirstNet is not intended to replace land mobile radio (LMR) because it does not include mission critical voice capabilities FirstNet is not intended to replace land mobile radio (LMR) because it does not include mission critical voice capabilities. The goal is to provide additional capacity, coverage and interoperability. The system has already proven successful in several high-profile disasters in recent months. For example, Panama City Beach, Fla., relied on AT&T FirstNet for communications in the wake of Hurricane Michael, which caused outages last October in the jurisdiction’s broadband and LMR systems. AT&T and FirstNet also set up a Satellite Cell on Light Truck (SatCOLT) to enhance cell service for first responders who were battling California’s Camp Fire last November. They brought mobile cell service back to the city of Malibu, Calif., in the aftermath of the Woolsey Fire in November. Wireless Broadband Network CWA has been involved with FirstNet from the beginning and was an active member of the Public Safety Alliance that supported the creation of FirstNet. Discussions first began after 9/11 about the need for FirstNet. CWA also supported Senate Bill 3756, the Public Safety Spectrum and Wireless Innovation Act, which allocates 10 megahertz of spectrum known as the ‘D block’ to public safety for a nationwide interoperable wireless broadband network. Passage of the bill, in effect, created FirstNet. CWA includes professional public safety members around the country in addition to their membership of communications workers. In all, CWA represents 700,000 workers in the U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico, working in telecommunications and IT, the airline industry, news media, broadcast and cable television, education, health care and public service, law enforcement, manufacturing and other fields.
North America’s largest fire event, FDIC International, brings together more than 34,000 fire industry professionals this month (April 8-13) at the Indiana Convention Center and Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis. First constructed in 1928, FDIC continues today in its original tradition of providing a forum for networking about the most vexing issues and sharing the most promising solutions to concerns that face the fire service. FDIC provides opportunities to learn new techniques, train alongside world-class leaders, and advance discussions among the most influential firefighters in the industry. FDIC allows practitioners and those who support the industry an opportunity to discuss frankly the latest developments in equipment and support and collaborate on how those new advancements can be best used. 27 Interactive H.O.T Sessions FDIC offers many opportunities for learning and training, starting with its 27 interactive Hands-on Training (H.O.T) sessions“FDIC is steadfastly dedicated to its fundamental principle of providing a non-ideological, non-affiliated and openly inclusive environment for sharing and collaborating among all members interested in the mission of the fire service,” says Chief Bobby Halton, Editorial Director, Clarion Fire Rescue Group, and Educational Director, FDIC International. “Whether their interests lie in operations, medical or fire, in administration, in the production and distribution of equipment, or the advancement of codes and standards, all opinions and worldviews are accepted and debated with the utmost respect and dignity.” FDIC offers many opportunities for learning and training, starting with its 27 interactive Hands-on Training (H.O.T) sessions, 78 pre-conference workshops and more than 200 conference sessions. FDIC’s immersive learning experience extends to the exhibit hall floor and outdoor demonstration area where attendees can see and try the latest products, equipment, services and technology from over 800 exhibiting companies. “FDIC is more important than ever to the fire service industry because it is now and will always be of the firefighters, for the firefighters, and about the firefighters,” says Halton. Events Co-Located With FDIC New this year, iWomen is co-locating their event at FDIC, which includes 14 timely classroom sessions spread over two days, as well as networking events geared at sharing challenges and insights in a supportive environment. Also, the Institution of Fire Engineers United States of America Branch is co-locating their AGM annual meeting and educational update at FDIC. And the National Fire Heritage Center has partnered with FDIC to promote the center, conduct its annual meeting and introduce the annual inductees into the Hall of Legends. FDIC is more important than ever to the fire service industry because it is now and will always be of the firefighters, for the firefighters, and about the firefighters FDIC’s new MATCH! Program is a customized meeting experience that connects attending decision makers, who have an immediacy to purchase, with exhibitors whose products or services match their sourcing needs and interests. These VIP attendees can make the most efficient use of their time by accessing innovative matchmaking technology and a personal program manager to assist them with meeting scheduling and recommendations. Exhibitors At The Event FDIC’s Mobile App is a visitor’s guide to searching the exhibitor list, navigating the exhibit hall and seeing a full schedule of sessions and events. FDIC’s new parking partner, Gate Ten Events and Parking, allows visitors to reserve their parking space ahead of time. Large exhibitors headlining the Exhibit Hall include Pierce; Rev Fire Group, E-ONE, KME, Ferrara and REV Ambulance; 3M Scott Fire and Safety; and HME Ahrens-Fox. Other large exhibitors include Honeywell First Responder Products, Drager, Globe by MSA, Rosenbauer and Spartan Motors. Here are some of the timely themes covered at this year’s conference: Current updates on the development and implementation of science-based strategy and tactics Information and practices on mental health and wellness Leading advances in firefighting technology and managing an integration of technology into the decision-making process during operations Review of recent sentinel events in the fire service from actual participants Analysis of accident investigation from members of NIOSH and the CDC Updates on current research into toxicity in the environment and equipment Current thoughts on decontamination procedures presented by researchers and practitioners The value of belongingness as a tool for health and wellness, suicide prevention, a detailed examination of the sociotechnical interface and firefighting’s role going forward The complex political and operational dilemmas faced in the wildland urban interface Recruitment and retention for the volunteer fire service Networking Opportunities Abound The event takes over the city, and there are chances to network with peers everywhere they turnAt FDIC, networking starts the moment attendees arrive in town. The event takes over the city, and there are chances to network with peers everywhere they turn. Formal networking events are also organized, including the 9/11 Memorial Stair Climb, Courage and Valor 5K Fun Run, Comedy vs. Cancer, IFD Open House and Pumper Pull, Stop Drop Rock ‘n’ Roll and more. “We want individuals to walk away feeling inspired by new ideas, tools or techniques they’ve learned in sessions or new products or services they’ve sourced on the show floor that ultimately keep them and their communities safe,” says Halton.
The Fire Safety Event, 9-11th April, at the National Exhibition Center (NEC) in Birmingham, UK, is the fastest growing exhibition for the fire safety industry in the United Kingdom in terms of both exhibitor and visitor numbers, say the organizers. The growth can be attributed to the exhibitor lineup and full program of seminars and features. Visitors can also expect live demonstrations, world-class speakers and a keen focus on the issues most pressing in the industry today. This content is managed in-house by The Fire Safety Event’s experienced team, who are deeply entrenched in the industry and able to respond quickly to developments in the market. Furthermore, co-location with three complementary events provides a more comprehensive offering for visitors, giving them more value for the time they spend on-site. Maintaining The Highest Fire Safety Standards Our continuing partnerships with a whole host of key industry associations reinforce the importance of The Fire Safety Event for the market" The Fire Safety Event is hosting more 50 of the world’s leading fire safety brands in 2019. Notable exhibitors include Kingspan, FirePro, Klaxon, Xtralis and FFE. The full list of exhibitors and partners can be found on their website. “Our continuing partnerships with a whole host of key industry associations reinforce the importance of The Fire Safety Event for the market and the need for an event like ours in the UK,” says Rachel Godfrey, events manager. “Our exhibitors recognize our goal is to offer education and support, filling a gap in the market and helping to ensure their customers maintain the highest fire safety standards,” Godfrey continues. “High-profile incidents in recent years have put a spotlight on the industry, and we recognize our role in providing ongoing education on new standards and legislation, best-practice advice and access to great products that will support the industry.” CPD-Accredited Seminar Program The seminar program has been designed to engage and educate the audience. It is delivered across four areas – Fire Safety Keynote Theatre, Fire & Evacuation Theatre, DSEAR (Dangerous Substance and Explosive Atmospheres Regulation) with a Bang Demo Area, and Tall Buildings Fire Protection Area. The seminar program is CPD-accredited and is delivered by leading industry experts, government officials, lawyers and manufacturersThe seminar program is CPD (Continuing Professional Development)-accredited and is delivered by leading industry experts, government officials, lawyers and manufacturers. Also featured are less conventional seminar formats, with Pinsent Mason welcoming audiences into a mock trial based on real life prosecution under the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. Now in its third year, the show certainly has evolved. “We began with 16 exhibitors and now proudly this year will host over 50!” says Godfrey. “We really value feedback and have taken on board what visitors say, as well as understanding exactly what our exhibitors say worked for them in previous years. We’ve added more elements that aim to challenge and educate audiences and hopefully ensure the event is so pivotal in the fire safety calendar that visitors count down the days until our next show.” High Profile Speaker Lineup As the event grows in stature, it has been able to attract a higher profile speaker lineup, including Dame Judith Hackitt and former New York City Fire Commissioner Sal Cassano as two of the keynote speakers this year. “This undoubtedly has helped attract our highest number of visitors and exhibitors to date,” says Godfrey. With the introduction of The Security Event, we will also see a much greater increase in the number of installers and end users attending"“Our dedication to putting on the best quality content will set us apart from other events, and we believe this will see us continue to grow. With the introduction of The Security Event [this year], we will also see a much greater increase in the number of installers and end users attending, many of whom will also have an interest in fire safety.” Simultaneous Events Taking Place At NEC Also taking place at the NEC between 9-11th April are The Health & Safety Event, The Facilities Event, and, new for 2019 – The Security Event. One of the key benefits for visitors of the co-location of the events is the complementary seminars taking place within the other shows that are relevant to the fire audience. “It also enables visitors to meet exhibitors that cover other disciplines for which they may only have a partial responsibility,” says Godfrey. “We recognize it isn’t always feasible to justify attending individual shows, so having the other shows in the hall just next door is a huge bonus for the fire audience.”
The aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks in New York City highlighted the critical need for dependable communications among first responders during emergencies and disasters. In response, Congress established (in 2012) the independent First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet) to deliver a nationwide broadband network dedicated to public safety. AT&T was later chosen as the private company tasked over 25 years with building out the network. This month marks the first full year of FirstNet deployment, and expansion is ahead of schedule, according to Mike Worrell, FirstNet’s Senior Fire Services Advisor. The next few years will see improvements in FirstNet coverage in both urban and non-urban areas, he says. Public Safety Agencies We are pleased with the progress, but there is much more work to do, and we look forward to continuing to move quickly for public safety" This has already begun with LTE coverage for FirstNet increasing by more than 50,000 square miles nationwide in 2018; network contractor AT&T achieved this by deploying FirstNet’s Band 14 spectrum in more than 500 markets. This increases coverage and capacity for the more than 5,250 public safety agencies using over 425,000 connections on FirstNet today. “We are now one year into a five-year build-out plan for FirstNet,” says Worrell. “We are pleased with the progress, but there is much more work to do, and we look forward to continuing to move quickly for public safety. Even after the five-year plan is met, we will continue to evolve this network to meet public safety’s needs over the course of our 25-year contract with AT&T.” TheBigRedGuide.com contacted Worrell for more information on FirstNet and its benefits for the U.S. fire service. TheBigRedGuide.com: What are the specific benefits of FirstNet for fire departments? Are the benefits only applicable to emergency situations, and/or what are the “day to day” benefits of the network to improve fire service operations? Worrell: In the fire service, having the right tools is essential to ensuring successful and safe emergency response and recovery efforts. For firefighters, communications tools are critical to improving response times and providing situational awareness. AVL (Automatic Vehicle Location), ePCR (Electronic Patient Care Reporting), transmission of ECG (electrocardiogram) telemetry, CAD (Computer-Aided Dispatch) Mobile Data, and web-based notification systems all require data connectivity to operate; without them, fire department operations can be negatively impacted. FirstNet users are able to use the network’s priority and preemption features to maintain connectivity and throughput This is why firefighters, and first responders across disciplines, are moving to FirstNet—the nation’s only broadband network dedicated to public safety. With FirstNet available nationwide, firefighters are taking advantage of the network’s services to ensure reliable communications during emergencies, large-scale events, and everyday response. When commercial networks are stressed and saturated by public use, FirstNet users are able to use the network’s priority and preemption features to maintain connectivity and throughput. With FirstNet providing robust bandwidth and high speeds, firefighters can quickly and efficiently access the data needed to respond. Some departments are using FirstNet to share data—such as images of wildfires—download critical building plans, or access traffic data to provide a complete picture of any situation. Having good situational awareness provides responders with the information needed to make informed decisions. FirstNet can also improve responder safety by enabling teams to use real-time mapping capabilities to track assets and personnel, share lookout positions, and plan safe escape routes. BRG: How can you balance the need for greater coverage of rural areas with the need for more capacity in urban areas? What guides priorities about how the network is built out? Worrell: The First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet Authority) is committed to serving all first responders because emergencies can happen anywhere. When Congress created the FirstNet Authority, it included assurances for building out coverage in rural areas at the same time as urban areas. To better serve rural areas the FirstNet buildout includes a commitment to building in places where states and territories and the public safety community have identified a need for improved coverage. FirstNet is the only carrier that has done in-depth consultation with each state The FirstNet Authority and AT&T have worked closely with the public safety community to identify communication needs in rural areas and determine gaps. FirstNet is the only carrier that has done in-depth consultation with each state, territory, and the District of Columbia to identify the key areas where coverage is needed most by first responders. Rural areas that have recently benefitted from the FirstNet buildout include the Black Hills of South Dakota; the farming communities of Tulare County, California; and the tribal lands of the Chickasaw Nation in south-central Oklahoma. In more urban areas where LTE coverage already exists, we are connecting with first responders to build the capacity they need to do their jobs successfully and safely. This is why urban areas such as Dallas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, Phoenix, San Diego, and San Francisco saw a boost in Band 14 coverage over the last year. The FirstNet Authority is committed to working with public safety to ensure these goals are met during the buildout of the network BRG: Looking ahead to the next five years, what can we expect from FirstNet in terms of additional coverage, capacity and/or other factors? Worrell: FirstNet’s future is focused on public safety and connecting rural and remote responders, increasing capacity for urban responders, and providing the public safety community with innovative solutions. The FirstNet Authority is committed to working with public safety to ensure these goals are met during the buildout of the network. While there is much more work to do, AT&T continues to hit the ground running for public safety, delivering on time or ahead of schedule, and we are pleased with the progress. We are also seeing the technology gap between large and small agencies closing. Because of low-cost devices and accessibility to public safety applications, technology is getting into the hands of first responders who did not previously have technology at their fingertips. The FirstNet Authority is also continuing to work directly with public safety to identify opportunities to advance the network in future years as we seek to invest back into the network. If there are members of the fire service who are interested in engaging with the FirstNet Authority on how operationalizing public safety broadband can help them on the job and their future needs for mobile broadband, I encourage them to reach out. We have regional contacts who would be happy to speak with them. BRG: Describe the use and availability of the nationwide fleet of 72 FirstNet dedicated deployable assets. How have the assets been effectively deployed in the past (related to the fire service)? Situated in 40 states, these deployables are readily accessible nationwide and can be requested at no cost by FirstNet subscribers Worrell: In 2018, AT&T launched a fleet of 72 deployable network assets, including mobile cell towers like Satellite Cell on Light Trucks (SatCOLTs) and Cell on Wheels (COWs), to provide extra coverage in the event of an emergency or large planned event. Situated in 40 states, these deployables are readily accessible nationwide and can be requested at no cost by FirstNet subscribers. FirstNet deployables have been used to support responders during several fire-related incidents like wildfires, notably California’s devastating 2018 Camp Fire and Oregon’s 2018 Miles Fire. When the ongoing Miles Fire forced the residents and community of Prospect, Oregon, to evacuate, the Fire Incident Management Team called in FirstNet for support. A SatCOLT was deployed at the base camp where nearly 2,000 first responders were gathering to coordinate their response efforts. Before FirstNet deployed the SatCOLT to their base camp, first responders in Tualatin Valley, Oregon, couldn’t send a text message, let alone speak on the phone to their families. Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue Fire Chief Mike Duyck says that, as it stands today, FirstNet is meeting their needs, giving them better situational awareness, and bringing comfort to responders during times of stress and anxiety. BRG: Which fire departments should purchase their own deployable network assets in the First Responders Mobility Zone program? Worrell: Through our consultation with public safety as we planned for this network, they told us of the importance of having deployable assets available to help during large disasters or to secure large planned events. FirstNet subscribers have access to a unique solution through our fleet of FirstNet-dedicated deployables FirstNet subscribers have access to a unique solution through our fleet of FirstNet-dedicated deployables, as well as the option to purchase their own deployable network assets from our First Responders Mobility Zone program. For more information on this and other FirstNet products and services, visit FirstNet’s website. BRG: In addition to expanding network coverage and capacity, please briefly describe FirstNet’s progress creating devices and apps ecosystems to connect first responders to innovative, life-saving technologies. Can you provide any examples specific to the fire service? Worrell: As part of our commitment to providing public safety with innovative tools, the FirstNet Authority works with all public safety disciplines, including the fire service, to deliver applications and solutions to meet their needs. Another unique aspect of FirstNet is the first-ever App Catalog for first responders. It is a dedicated location to find meaningful new solutions that have been specifically reviewed for use on FirstNet. Before any app can be added to the FirstNet App Catalog, it must pass stringent tests for security, relevancy, data privacy, and more. FirstNet subscribers can access more than two dozen apps for first responders through the FirstNet App Catalog As of March 2019, FirstNet subscribers can access more than two dozen apps for first responders through the FirstNet App Catalog. For example, Esri’s Explorer for ArcGIS app is now listed in the FirstNet App Catalog. The app allows first responders to access their agency’s authoritative maps in the field on mobile devices for better situational awareness. We’re excited about the progress being made to bring innovative solutions to first responders through our growing applications ecosystem. For anyone interested in learning more about how to submit an app for the FirstNet App Catalog, find information on the FirstNet Developer Program on the website. The FirstNet Innovation and Test Lab is a focal point for bringing emerging technology to public safety BRG: What is the role of the FirstNet Innovation and Test Lab? Worrell: The FirstNet Innovation and Test Lab is a focal point for bringing emerging technology to public safety. FirstNet Authority staff use the state-of-the-art lab to test the standards-based mission-critical functions and features of the FirstNet network. In the future, staff will use scenario-based tests to assess network saturation during emergencies and large-scale incidents. The FirstNet Authority is also in the early stages of launching a FirstNet experience program that will allow firefighters and other public safety officials to explore first responder technologies through hands-on demonstrations. The program will consist of a future experience center located in Boulder, Colorado, as well as a traveling center so that first responders nationwide can engage with FirstNet on cutting-edge technologies and explore new ways to respond. BRG: Please provide any recent examples of specific emergency situations when FirstNet made a difference, especially related to effective operation of the fire service. Worrell: FirstNet is helping public safety across the country stay connected so they can better protect themselves and their communities. From Hurricanes Florence and Michael to a major flood in Washington County, Maryland, FirstNet is being used every day and in every type of emergency. FirstNet-dedicated deployables were provided to boost communications for firefighters and first responders in the area FirstNet also supported the response and recovery efforts during the Camp Fire wildfire that devastated Paradise, California, in November 2018. During this fire, most of the telecommunications infrastructure was damaged, making it extremely difficult for first responders to communicate. FirstNet-dedicated deployables were provided to boost communications for firefighters and first responders in the area. Las Vegas Fire and Rescue also used FirstNet during the Life is Beautiful Music and Art Festival. In 2018, the festival coincided with a Presidential visit, bringing extra public officials and emergency communications to the city of Las Vegas. To boost communications, FirstNet distributed 30 FirstNet-ready mobile devices to the Las Vegas Fire and Rescue team so that they could use push-to-talk applications and relay voice, text, video, and location-based information in real-time. FirstNet is proud to support first responders across the country, and we look forward to continuing to drive innovation to meet their needs.
Five Wilmington, Del., firefighters and two police officers were hospitalized last September when they inhaled the opioid fentanyl while responding to a drug overdose call. A family member had turned on a fan, which blew white powder onto the firefighters and police officers. Last August at a prison in Chillicothe, Ohio, there were 28 people – guards, nurses and one inmate at the correctional facility near Cincinnati – who were treated for exposure to a mixture of heroin and fentanyl. Creating New Barriers Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid first manufactured in the early 1960s, and small dosages are used by health care professionals to manage pain. The danger to firefighters and other first responders comes from use of fentanyl as a street drug to cut heroin or cocaine. The drug is creating new barriers to make first responder’s jobs more difficult and dangerous. Fentanyl first emerged as a public health emergency in British Columbia, Canada, in spring 2016 Fentanyl first emerged as a public health emergency in British Columbia, Canada, in spring 2016, and it has since spread throughout the United States. Availability of fentanyl smuggled into the United States from China and other countries makes it easy for dealers to create fentanyl-laced street drugs. Addressing The Growing Concerns Because of its extreme potency, even a very small amount of fentanyl (approximately 2 milligrams) can be fatal. Fentanyl is 100 times more potent than morphine, and chemically-similar analog drugs are even a bigger danger. The fentanyl analog carfentanil is reported to be 10,000 times more potent than morphine; inhalation of airborne particles can be fatal. Fentanyl and its analogs are not easily identified by sight, so firefighters require technologies such as ion mobility spectrometers, and infrared and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their presence. The White House and the Office of National Drug Control Policy has released a training video for first responders, designed to address growing concerns. Fentanyl is 100 times more potent than morphine, and chemically-similar analog drugs are even a bigger danger Importance Of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Respirator masks, glasses and gloves provide a degree of protection. Gloves will shield the skin from exposure, and respirator masks prevent the inhalation of airborne powder. Wearing eye protection can prevent exposure through the mucus membrane of the eyes. Here are some strategies to protect first responders during an opioid-related response, highlighted in a panel discussion at the 2017 EMS World Expo: Assess the scene for exposure risks and to guide decisions about use of PPE (personal protective equipment). Use respiratory PPE for protection against airborne fentanyl. Use nitrile, single-use examination gloves and safety glasses. Employ simulation training to be proficient in opioid patient assessment and care. Wash fentanyl-contaminated skin with soap and water; don’t use alcohol-based sanitizers which can increase the rate of transdermal transfer. Highly Potent Substances The deadly presence of the substances becomes a hidden danger that requires appropriate training and equipment The possible presence of fentanyl and related substances at a response scene has created new safety concerns for first responders, especially at overdose scenes. However, responders may also encounter the highly potent substances on what otherwise might appear to be a routine call. In this scenario, the deadly presence of the substances becomes a hidden danger that requires appropriate training and equipment, and adherence to accepted procedures. Understanding the risks and following protocols are critical to managing the possibility of exposure.
The power of data provides numerous benefits to the fire service, and today’s data collection and analysis software tools are making data more valuable than ever. Data collection and records management have been a core requirement in the U.S. fire service since the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 established a necessity for state and local governments to develop fire reporting and analysis capabilities. The National Fire Information Reporting System (NFIRS) requirements cover incident and casualty reporting, and later versions of the NFIRS format (NFPA Standard 901) have expanded the collection of data beyond fires to include a full range of fire department activity on a national scale. All 50 states and the District of Columbia report NFIRS data, which together represent the world’s largest national, annual database of fire incident information. Benefit The Operation Of Fire Department Effective collection and analysis of data can help fire departments document their performance to various stakeholdersAnd the benefits of data collection at today’s fire departments also extend beyond the ability to meet NFIRS requirements. Collecting and analyzing data from department training records, building and inspection information, document management, and apparatus and equipment maintenance and tracking, among other categories, are additional aspects of data collection that can benefit the operation of a fire department. A variety of commercial data collection software products help to streamline data management in today’s fire service, including suppliers such as Firehouse by ESO, ImageTrend, ZOLL and Emergency Reporting. In particular, effective collection and analysis of data can help fire departments document their performance to various stakeholders, make a stronger case when applying for grants and/or additional funding, and understand strategically how their department can improve. Demonstrating Fire Department’s Effectiveness “Data is driving the fire service, but humans are in the driver’s seat,” says Tom Louis, Business Development Analyst for Emergency Reporting. “Humans must extract data, compile it and communicate it in an effective manner to demonstrate a department’s effectiveness in serving the community.” Collecting data such as daily logs, incidents, maintenance and safety analytics can enable a fire department to tell its story more effectively using numbers More sophisticated management of incident reporting and other data can support departmental requests for grant money and other funding. “Most departments are looking for sources of funding, and they know the firefighter grants are out there, so they need to up their game,” says Louis. “Data collection can bring value locally to meet a department’s need to demonstrate its effectiveness to the community.” “In the fire service, decisions cannot be made on emotion alone, and people are grateful for [data management systems] we provide,” he adds. “Taxpayers require a level of transparency in order to hold those managing the services of a community accountable, to justify and verify the essential reason for their existence.” Promoting Firefighters’ Health And Safety Capturing data points can also serve as a means to analyze the situation and prevent injuries from happening Another benefit of data collection is to promote the safety of firefighters. For example, data collection can enable a department to track firefighters’ exposure to carcinogens, hazardous materials, blood-borne pathogens, and/or “atypically stressful events.” If there is an injury or illness, data documentation can help to demonstrate a firefighter’s qualification for injury benefits or medical care, document any personal protective equipment (PPE) failures, etc. Capturing data points can also serve as a means to analyze the situation and prevent injuries from happening. Louis says records management systems can provide a return on investment (ROI) within a year or less based on the ability to identify areas in a department that need improvement. Better data guides more efficient deployment of manpower and application of resources. Data can also document compliance with national standards to achieve accreditation with the Center for Public Safety Excellence (CPSE), for example. Considering the high cost of equipment and other fire service expenses, the cost of good data management software is “small potatoes,” says Louis, especially considering the benefits. Cloud-Based Data Collection System Emergency Reporting provides a 100% cloud-based system to collect and report fire service data, and annual subscription costs vary depending on which modules are purchased and on the size of a department (number of fire stations). A starter NFIRS-only package starts at under $1,000 a year. Other software companies provide a range of products including both cloud and/or systems installed on-premise. Simplicity of use is one point of differentiation among various products. Data reporting software from companies such as Emergency Reporting is a powerful management tool in the fire service Before the advent and growing popularity of specialized data reporting software systems, fire departments typically used laborious ‘pen and paper’ reporting techniques, or they used ‘home-grown’ computer systems designed using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and/or Access databases, for example. The next wave of data management systems is providing more robust business intelligence services, including real-time data in the form of dashboards that enable insight into the state of a department at a glance. Application software protocols (APIs) are enabling integration of data systems with scheduling software, response software and other solutions. Data For Fleet Management Systems If you make data easy to use, then decision-makers can extract data that is trustworthy and easily understood"In the age of the Internet of Things (IoT), there will be more integration with devices such as heart monitors or apparatus systems that can provide data for fleet management and maintenance systems. “The data environment will get denser, and the ability to sift through it and pull out useful information will be more of a challenge,” comments Louis. “Beyond compliance, probably the biggest benefit of better data collection is the ability to extract data out of the system to make intelligent, actional decisions,” says Louis. “If you make data easy to use, then decision-makers can extract data that is trustworthy and easily understood.” “It allows you to take an introspective look into the performance of your department, using data that measures what you do day-to-day, incident-to-incident,” he adds. “Measure it and you can tell your story of what you’re contributing to your community.”
Recruiting and training enough firefighters to meet community needs has been a continuing challenge for decades, especially in the case of volunteer firefighters, who make up 70% of the fire service in the United States. In some areas of the country, the problem has reached a critical stage. A recent report by a commission of lawmakers, city officials and emergency service personnel in Pennsylvania, for example, notes that the population of volunteer firefighters in the state has dwindled from 300,000 in the 1990s to fewer than 38,000. In Pennsylvania, around 90 percent of the state’s 2,400 fire companies are volunteer. Challenges Faced By Volunteers There are multiple challenges to supplying adequate personnel to the fire service. One is an aging population. About a third of small-town volunteer firefighters are over 50, and it’s not uncommon for rural firefighters to be in their 60s or 70s. Furthermore, economic challenges today require many households to have two incomes, and increased job and family responsibilities leave little time for volunteering. Commuting patterns make it less likely volunteers work in the local community, which makes them less available in case of a fire emergency. Nationwide calls to volunteer fire departments have tripled in the last three decades Also exacerbating the problem is that fire departments are facing more emergency calls than ever, including a variety of different kinds of calls. The National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC) notes that volunteer firefighters are summoned to a wide array of emergencies across the country every day including fires, emergency medical incidents, terrorist events, natural disasters, hazardous materials incidents, water rescue emergencies, high-angle and confined space emergencies, and other general public service calls. The shortage of volunteer firefighters is being felt everywhere. Meanwhile, nationwide calls to volunteer fire departments have tripled in the last three decades. The problem is especially serious in small towns and rural areas, which are more likely to depend on volunteer firefighters. About a third of small-town volunteer firefighters are over 50, and it’s not uncommon for rural firefighters to be in their 60s or 70s Some Facts Of Interest From The NVFC Most volunteer firefighters (95%) are in departments that protect fewer than 25,000 people Of the estimated 29,727 fire departments in the U.S., 19,762 are all volunteer, and another 5,421 are mostly volunteer Nearly two-thirds (65%) of volunteer firefighters have more than five years of service Training costs are high, too. The NVFC estimates the cost to train and equip a firefighter at around $27,095. Volunteering can be costly for the volunteers, also, who drive personal cars to and from the station, for example. Even as the fire service embraces new technologies and approaches, the role of firefighters will remain essential Various measures are being undertaken to address the shortage of volunteer firefighters, including an increase in recruiting and marketing efforts to make volunteering more attractive. Given the aging firefighter population, it’s important to make entering the fire service a more desirable option for Millennials. Promotional efforts in Pennsylvania include marketing campaigns, recruitment centers, billboards, commercials in movie theaters and mailers. Need For Trained Personnel Incentives to join the fire service might include high school or college credit to volunteers or even free tuition to community colleges and state universities. Some states provide financial incentives such as property tax breaks or local income tax credits to fire volunteers. Departments are also changing to accommodate the lack of sufficient personnel. Some departments are centralising or consolidating. Others are transitioning to more full-time or paid-on-call firefighters. Even as the fire service embraces new technologies and approaches, the role of firefighters will remain essential. The role may evolve, but the need for trained personnel is a constant. Fulfilling that need will be an ongoing challenge for departments and local jurisdictions.
The immense scope and scale of this month’s California wildfires are a timely reminder of a “new normal” that includes a catastrophic toll in human tragedy and presents new challenges for fire service professionals. Some have pointed to the increased frequency of wildfires as a consequence of global warming, and the resulting higher temperatures, less humidity and changing wind and rainfall patterns. President Trump has blamed “poor forest management” (an assertion the president of California Professional Firefighters has called “dangerously wrong.”) Other theories include population shifts and the proximity of residences near wildlands. There has been talk of a need for better long-term fire prevention. But whatever the cause, the results are eye-opening. Historically, all but one of California’s biggest-ever wildfires have occurred in the last 10 years Rapid Increase In Wildfires In California California’s Camp Fire has been called the deadliest wildfire in the state’s history. Fast-moving and unpredictable, the fire totally destroyed the town of Paradise. At the same time, the Woolsey Fire continued for 10 days and consumed an estimated 96,949 acres in Los Angeles and Ventura counties. Historically, all but one of California’s biggest-ever wildfires have occurred in the last 10 years, whether measured in terms of area impacted, loss of life or damage to property, all suggesting a troubling acceleration. In fact, an increase in wildfires is causing destruction around the world. Firefighters Combating Wildfires Effectively For firefighters, the experience and environment have been compared to working in a war zone, reflected by terms such as “aerial assaults” and “boots on the ground.” Burned-out cars on the side of the road, residents fleeing from their homes and whole areas totally annihilated reflect a level of destruction that is unusual in a peaceful society. Tent cities of displaced residents are reminiscent of war refugees. For the recent California fires, firefighter teams traveled from 17 states to battle the wildfires The California wildfires also bring out the best in humanity. There are tales of neighbor helping neighbor and examples of heroism among residents and firefighters, who also share a feeling of brotherhood and kinship forged in extremely adverse conditions. It’s a job that demands bravery and resilience. For the recent California fires, firefighter teams traveled from 17 states to battle the wildfires, from as far away as Alaska and Georgia. There were around 200 firefighters from Texas, 300 from Oregon, and 144 from Arizona among the extra manpower deployed to fight the fires. Protecting Firefighters From Wildfire Danger Fighting wildfires requires a specific approach and offers new challenges. Water can be difficult to find in an already drought-ridden state. Fires that spring up in wooded areas present difficult terrain for fire-fighting vehicles. Higher heat and smoke levels challenge the best methods of protecting firefighters from injury. As the accelerated pace and larger scale of wildfires continue, the fire service will need to expand its strategies, and fire equipment industry will need to enhance its toolbox to meet tomorrow’s continuing horrific realities. If there is a lesson in this month’s wildfires in California, perhaps it is this: More to come.
From a dozen or more perspectives, the tragic fire at London’s Grenfell Tower was a wakeup call. The shear scope of the tragedy – 72 deaths, 70 injuries in the worst United Kingdom residential fire since World War II – is a stark reminder of the importance of fire prevention, and the catastrophic consequences of its failure. There are additional lessons to be learned from the fire service response to the blaze, which burned for 60 hours and involved 250 London Fire Brigade firefighters and 70 fire engines from stations across London. A stark reminder of the importance of fire prevention, and the catastrophic consequences of its failure In short, the Grenfell fire is the kind of colossal event that shakes aside any complacency that stems from a decades-long trend of decreasing deaths from fire. It takes a tragedy of such monumental proportions to get the full attention of government, regulators, fire professionals, and the general public. In the aftermath of the tragedy, the challenge is to focus that attention in ways that can have a real impact on preventing future tragedies. Building Regulations And Designs A torrent of questions and second-guessing have emerged from the Grenfell experience. How should building regulations change, including the use of aluminum composite material panels that contributed to the rapid spread of the fire? What about building designs? Grenfell Tower had one central stairwell and one exit. Are more sprinkler systems needed in residential buildings, and what obstacles must be overcome to make it happen? Related to the response to the fire, how did officials who advised residents to “stay put” for two hours as the fire was spreading contribute to the death toll? How should practices change, given that “stay put” is often the advice to residents in a high-rise building fire likely to be easily contained? Every action taken in response to the fire is being scrutinised. Will useful new best practices emerge? Are more sprinkler systems needed in residential buildings, and what obstacles must be overcome to make it happen? Sufficiency of firefighting equipment is another concern. In the Grenfell fire, how was the firefighting effort impacted when a tall ladder did not arrive for more than 30 minutes? What was the role of low water pressure? Were there problems with radio communication? The Grenfell Tower Inquiry, ordered by Prime Minister Theresa May on the day after the fire, is examining every detail. The inquiry’s chairman has promised that “no stone will be left unturned.” Meanwhile, it behooves all of us to ponder what lessons we can learn from the tragedy, and to ask how we can apply those lessons to prevent future tragedies.
During the shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Fla., on Feb. 14, the gunman activated a manual fire alarm and shot at students as they left the building. The alarm promoted confusion during the calamity, in part because there had been a fire drill earlier in the day. It's not the first time a fire alarm has played a role in an active shooter scenario. Twenty years ago, a similar tactic was used at the Westside Middle School shooting in Jonesborough, Ark. A fire alarm also was pulled at Columbine High School during the 1998 massacre. The concern is not new. Alternatives To Manual-Pull Fire Alarms Manual pull fire alarms also present other problems, especially nuisance alarms. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has addressed the problem for more than a decade in its Life Safety Standards, which allow for the elimination of manual pull alarms as long as there are other measures that provide the same benefits. “We have had a provision to relieve schools from having to install pull boxes in common areas for 12 to 15 years,” says Robert Solomon, Director for Building Fire Protection and Systems at NFPA. “Many school administrators don’t realize we have given them alternatives.”Many school administrators don’t realize we have given them alternatives” Alternatives include use of smoke detectors, automatic sprinklers, and/or locating pull stations in school administration or office areas. NFPA Life Safety Code The NFPA Life Safety Code was created in 1911 and has been updated every three years since then. Committees that include architects, engineers, code consultants, manufacturers, testing labs, and universities meet periodically to discuss what changes are needed. In fact, the committees are meeting this summer in Minneapolis to discuss the next version of the Life Safety Code. NFPA manages the code but has no authority to enforce it. State policy makers and legislative bodies (and some municipalities) adopt various versions of the code as local requirements. Which version of the NFPA Life Safety Code has been adopted in a locality determines how much flexibility there is to eliminate pull station alarms. Allowances to eliminate them have been included since 2006. However, some localities are still using earlier versions of the code, in which case a change in the law would be required to provide the additional flexibilities. The 2018 Life Safety Code allows the elimination of manual pull stations in some circumstances NFPA And Manual-Pull Fire Alarms Sections in the code address issues and concerns related to new construction (Chapter 14) and existing occupancy (Chapter 15). In the case of existing facilities, a school administrator could act to phase out manual pull stations in common areas as long as the move is allowed under the code version (year) that the jurisdiction has adopted. For example, a jurisdiction still operating under the 2000 code could not eliminate pull stations unless the local jurisdiction adopted a more recent version of the code. The 2018 Life Safety Code allows the elimination of manual pull stations if: Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors in accordance with the code; Auditoriums, cafeterias, and gymnasiums are protected by heat-detection devices or other approved detection devices; Workshops and laboratories with dust and vapor are protected by heat-detection devices or other approved detection devices; and There is a provision at a central point to manually activate the evacuation signal or to evacuate only affected areas. Manual pull alarms can also be eliminated if there is a sprinkler system with a pressure sensor that activates an alarm when the water starts to flow.No student has died in a school fire in the United States since 1958 Another measure schools can adopt is to install a cover for the pull station that sounds a local horn if it is lifted to gain access to the manual fire alarm box. This approach is a deterrent and alerts local personnel before a full-blown fire alarm is activated. A security camera installed near an alarm can also be activated when the alarm is pulled. School Fire Risk No student has died in a school fire in the United States since 1958 when the Our Lady of Angels School fire in Chicago claimed 92 fatalities. (Chicago did not use the NFPA Life Safety Code at the time.) The tragic fire was a wakeup call to pay more attention to school fire risks. Since 1958, the level of planning, training and systems that have been installed in schools (including use of the NFPA Life Safety Code) has paid dividends in student safety. Today, it is more likely a student will die at the hands of an active shooter than in a fire. That reality has driven the need to adapt provisions of the Life Safety Code. For example, door-locking options need to allow for school lockdowns while still enabling safe exit during a fire. Some door-locking or barricade devices on the market do not adhere to code requirements. A section on “classroom door locking to prevent entry” is included in the 2018 edition of the code. Raising Awareness Of Life Safety Codes Awareness is a challenge for NFPA. While code officials or architect/engineers may be familiar with Life Safety Code requirements, that awareness may not extend to busy school administrators. NFPA is working to communicate code requirements to this group, including development of one-page executive summaries that make complex code requirements more digestible. “Policy makers should understand they have an obligation to review code provisions and work toward staying more current on codes,” says Solomon. Alarms activated during an active shooter event are a variation on a problem that has plagued pull-station alarms for years – the issue of nuisance alarms. It’s a scary and potentially deadly new angle on an age-old problem, but one the NFPA Life Safety Code has already been addressing.
The dangers of firefighting make it unfriendly to the concept of the learning curve. Before they put their lives on the line, firefighters should have knowledge and experience. But gaining knowledge and experience in the firefighting environment presents its own dangers. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging tool for training in the fire service. Recreating the firefighting experience realistically in a virtual world is a useful – and safer – alternative to on-the-job training. It is also less expensive than some other training options, such as recreation of realistic fire rescue scenarios. “For a situation when someone’s life would be in danger, a virtual reality experience can enable them to practice in the safety of their own environments,” says Michael Schreiner, Senior Director of Content for Target Solutions, which is developing VR training for firefighters. “In real life, the building would be on fire and they would have to make life-or-death decisions. With virtual reality, firefighters can make a mistake about how to attack a fire without putting themselves in danger.”With virtual reality, firefighters can make a mistake about how to attack a fire without putting themselves in danger.” Virtual Reality Firefighter Training Target Solutions, a brand of Vector Solutions, Tampa, Florida, has partnered with Pasco County (Fla.) Fire Rescue to develop a lifelike 360-degree VR “smoke reading” training course. Creating the course involved a 360-degree Virtual Reality video shoot using drone technology to film actual firefighters training in real-life simulations. The video was created with expert help from consultants and field insights from subject matter experts, fire service instructors, and paramedics. Learners using the course wear VR goggles and are immersed in a virtual environment where they will receive instruction on how to read smoke and to decide how to attack a fire based on what the smoke tells them. Reading smoke involves judging the color, volume, density and rate of rise. For example, the seat of a fire tends to produce smoke that is thick and dark and has a high rate of rise; in contrast, smoke elsewhere is a burning building might be light and wispy. Firefighters have to make split-second decisions based on the appearance of smoke, and deciding wrong can have dire consequences. Another benefit of virtual reality in firefighter training is lower costs Making Better Decisions The 12-minute-or-so smoke reading “micro-course” uses a story-based approach to emphasize the emotional elements of decision-making. Schreiner says people learn best when emotions are tied into the learning. Elements of the training scenario include exposition, rising action, a crisis and a resolution. Unrelenting “heartbeat” sounds promote a sense of urgency. The course then evaluates whether a learner made the right decision. The course can be practiced over and over. The idea is for firefighters to develop “muscle memory” to make better decisions under pressure in a real fire rescue situation. Vector Solutions chose shooting a video for a real-world effect over computer-generated graphics, which are more expensive but less realistic. For the video training, smoke graphic effects were added in post-production. Lower Training Costs The idea is for firefighters to develop “muscle memory” to make better decisions under pressure in a real situation Another benefit of virtual reality in firefighter training is lower costs. The training session used to shoot the 360-degree video cost around $20,000, which is typical of similar training exercises. Mobilizing a ladder truck, two fire trucks, a fire rescue truck and commander’s vehicles are all part of the costs, as are the costs (including overtime) of 13 firefighters taking part in the exercise. VR is a relatively new learning tool, and Schreiner says feedback from the market will make it clear how effective it is. “We can immerse a person in a situation and it’s a safe environment, but we have to let our learners tell us how effective it is,” he says. “We will get feedback from learners and training administration. It’s another tool in the toolbox, but it will not totally replace real-life training.” VR Training For Dangerous Professions Schreiner says VR is a huge training opportunity for any type of dangerous profession, whether construction workers operating on scaffolding, or educators in an active shooter situation. “Where safety is a risk, VR will really start taking off,” he says. Almost 6,000 clients across the United States use Target Solutions training products, including courses that are specific to the fire service, such as "Cancer Related Risks of Firefighting."