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Fire Protection For Paper And Pulp Plants
Fire Protection For Paper And Pulp Plants

There is a sense in some markets that the paper and pulp industry will decline owing to the digital technologies with which people interact every day. While this might be considered logical, the reality is completely different. In fact, the paper and pulp industry has experienced a steady growth and will continue to do so in 2021. Production of paper increased by more than 450% in the last decades and the demand of paperboard in the world is expected to grow significantly, driven by e-commerce and big retailers increasing their presence in the online sales universe. This sustained growth in production capacity and paper consumption presents several fire risks to companies and exposes communities that develop around paper mills, to the impact of disasters caused by these fire risks. Fire risks in the paper and pulp industry Paper and cardboard are combustible, but this is not the only fire risk found in these types of industries. Raw materials and finished goods storage are sensitive to fire. In addition, the paper making process includes several stages where fires can occur, due to hot surfaces or poor ventilation. The most relevant fire risks on a paper plant are: Storage Areas: As mentioned before, paper and cardboard are combustible. Solid paper blocks and reels have hard surfaces that don’t ignite easily, but usually these reels can suffer minor damages or have loose sheets that significantly increase the fire risk. When paper reels are stacked in columns, gaps in the center can act as chimneys and when fires start in the bottom of the stack, this chimney effect will accelerate smoke and hot air spread, increasing vertical and horizontal flame spread. Wood and Bale storage fire risks Bale storage also presents a high fire risk, as loose materials are always present Raw materials for the paper making process can have two main sources, forestry products (mainly wood) or recycled cardboard and paper. Wood storage presents several challenges, especially due to wood chips that are highly combustible and, in some cases, even explosive. Bale storage also presents a high fire risk, as loose materials are always present. Fire in baled paper is difficult to extinguish and generates heavy smoke. In many recycling facilities, these paper bales are stored outdoors, where paper or rags soaked in flammable liquids, embedded between the paper sheets, can ignite resulting in a fast spreading fire. Chemicals, flammable liquids and gases In addition, it is possible to find different types of chemicals, flammable liquids and gases that are used in the paper making process. These materials have their own fire-related risks that need to be taken in consideration. Production Areas: In pulp factories, there are several long-distance conveyors that transport wood and wood chips. These conveyors constitute a fire risk and the most probable causes of fire are bearing damage, overheating of the conveyor and igniting chips in the environment. IR dryers, a common source of fire After the wood has been transported, chipped and digested, the paper making process becomes extremely humid, due to the large amounts of hot water and steam needed. But, as soon as the pulp fiber sheet starts to dry, the hot surfaces in contact with the paper sheets can be a source of ignition. IR dryers used in the process are also a common source of fire in the paper industry. When the sheet of paper is formed, close contact with reels and bearings moving fast can create static electricity that could ignite loose paper or airborne particles. Problems like these are likely to be more extensive in tissue mills. Paper dust is generated in certain parts of the process, especially where paper shits are slit or cut. Poorly insulated steam pipes lead to fire Poorly insulated steam pipes can ignite paper dust or even their own insulation materials. In addition, paper dust gathers in the ventilation grills of machinery, causing overheating and igniting as well. Heated oil is used in several parts of the process as well and if a malfunction occurs on the Hot Oil Roll systems, leaks might occur, exposing hot surfaces to this oil and causing ignitions. A paper mill has hydraulically operated machinery, where leaks or sprays might ignite as well. Service Areas: As in many other manufacturing facilities, several service areas can be found. Electrical and network equipment rooms have an inherent fire risk due to damaged wires or equipment, overheating or short circuits in high voltage circuits. Transformer and generator areas entail fire risks as well. High fire risk for boiler rooms Flammable gas distribution systems can be ignition sources, in case of leaks or damaged pipes or valves Hot water and steam are key components for the paper making process. For this reason, paper plants use high capacity boilers that can be powered by flammable liquids or gases. A high fire risk can be considered for boiler rooms. Flammable gas distribution systems can be ignition sources, in case of leaks or damaged pipes or valves. In addition to the fire risks mentioned in these areas, many maintenance operations can also pose fire risk, especially when hot works are being performed. Sparks caused by welding or the use of certain tools can ignite paper sheets or dust in the air. Poor housekeeping and buildup of paper dust, for example, increases the risk associated with maintenance and construction works. Prevention, the first line of defense According to the Health and Safety Executive from the United Kingdom, 60% of fires on paper mills are caused by machine faults and poor housekeeping. The first line of defense to avoid fire risks in paper plants is prevention. As mentioned before, a high number of fires in these types of facilities occur because of poor housekeeping and machine malfunction. The key is to identify the risks and possible ignition sources, and apply measures to minimize them. As in many industries, fire protection has two main components: Passive and Active protection. Passive fire protection measures Passive measures include fire rated walls, ceilings, and floors in the most critical areas. Chemical storage areas should be physically separated from other dangerous areas, if this is not possible then the walls separating areas should be fire rated and materials must be stored in a way that minimizes the risk of fire spread by radiation or conduction. Proper compartmentalization and intumescent protection of structural elements should be part of the package as well. Passive measures include proper ventilation and smoke control. As mentioned before, paper dust is a major fire risk, which is why ventilation and cleaning of hoods over the paper machine is important to minimize the possibility of ignition. Fire resisting construction should be designed with the following goals in mind: Protection of escape routes Form compartments to contain fires that might occur Separate areas of higher fire risk Protect load bearing and structural members to minimize risk of collapse Sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels Active fire protection includes sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels to support fire brigades Active fire protection includes sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels to support fire brigades. Finished goods stored indoors should be protected with sprinkler systems and the same should be considered for chemical storage areas and certain raw materials. Paper bales, ideally should be protected by sprinklers that are suitably designed to cope with the height and located, in all cases, 3 meters above the level of bales stacked vertically (which should not exceed 5 meters height). Spark detectors in hoods, pipes and ventilation systems Dangerous sparks could be generated in several parts of the paper making process, which is why spark detectors must be installed in hoods, pipes, and ventilation systems. Water spray and CO2 systems can be used to protect machinery against these risks. Means to fight fires, like extinguishers and hose reels, should be provided to support fire brigades. All the elements should be properly identified and all personnel should be trained and made aware of the location of such devices. Importance of fire alarms Fire alarms are required in all paper mills and fire alarm call points should be provided in all locations, according to international guidelines, such as NFPA 72 or EN54. The spread of flames and smoke in paper, wood and chemical storage might become extremely fast. For this reason, early detection is critical. Many technologies might be applied in the different areas of a paper plant. Nevertheless, there are dusty or humid areas where regular heat or smoke detectors might fail under certain circumstances. For these areas, especially located outdoors, innovative state-of-the-art detection solutions might be applied, like Video Fire Detection (VFD). NFPA 72 standard for flame and smoke detection NFPA 72 provides guidelines to implement this technology for flame and smoke detection NFPA 72 provides guidelines to implement this technology for flame and smoke detection, opening interesting alternatives for designers and fire protection engineers. Many EHS managers and fire protection professionals selected VFD, because it is the only fire detection solution that effectively covered their needs. Many engineers, specialized in fire protection for paper plants, explained that they tested linear heat detection, aspiration smoke detection, IR/UV detectors and even beams, but none of these technologies performed as they needed on the dirtiest or more humid areas. Video Fire Detection (VFD) solutions Outdoor storage areas are often unprotected, because deploying flame or heat detection in large open areas can be costly and mostly ineffective. VFD solutions can detect smoke and flames in outdoor conditions, allowing the monitoring and protection of wood and paper bales in large areas. Fire detection and alarm systems should be designed with the following goals: Minimize risk of fires, including the use of fire detection technology in areas where regular detection technologies cannot be implemented or are not practical. Minimize risk of flame and smoke spread, with state-of-the-art detection algorithms that guarantee fast and effective detection. Also, reliable algorithms minimize the possibility of nuance or unwanted alarms. In case of a fire, fast detection gives occupants life-saving time to reach to a place of safety, before the flames and smoke have spread to dangerous levels. Global production of paper and pulp reached 490 million tons in 2020, with many industries and markets depended on the paper and pulp supply chain. That is why innovative ways to protect this supply chain, are key to sustain the paper market growth in the future.

Mobile Firefighting Systems Provide Flexible Fire Protection For Major Facilities
Mobile Firefighting Systems Provide Flexible Fire Protection For Major Facilities

Within traditional commercial and industrial firefighting systems, engineers have primarily focused on permanent installation designs rather than entertaining alternative or supplemental mobile firefighting systems. Permanent installation design is typically better understood, supported, and supplied throughout the fire protection engineering and manufacturing community. However, mobile firefighting systems provide unique solutions and advantages compared to their permanent installation cousins such as flexible deployment, simpler servicing, improved economy, and much higher performance availability. The combination of both systems is frequently the most strategic solution for the facility operator. Limitations of fixed installation systems Permanent installation (fixed) systems include everything from sprinklers, foam systems, primary watermain pumps, and the plethora of piping in between. A large refinery complex will need to address various hazard mitigation and control problems that span both hardware and personnel needs. In the event standard hazard mitigation safety procedures and equipment have failed, the facility immediately initiates a hazard control operation. Passive fixed systems automatically engage the hazard through an array of sensors, mechanical triggers, and control algorithms. A properly designed system with adequate hazard coverage, preplanning, preventative maintenance, and testing will successfully terminate the hazard, while firefighting personnel respond and ensure no further hazards develop. This conceptual approach relies on hardware and personnel all operating as planned…. Combining permanent and mobile apparatus “According to plan” would never have any failures or fires, but history has a different script. In the worst-case petrochemical scenario, fixed systems fail to extinguish a hazard putting the entire response on human and mobile hardware resources. This would include but is not limited to firetrucks, mobile high-flow pumping systems, large mobile monitors, foam proportioning units, and large diameter layflat hose. This type of response escalates into a larger scale operation, sometimes involving agencies beyond the facility operator itself. Although a low probability event, the risk to life and property is significantly substantial. Fixed systems may be rendered inoperable due to the loss of electrical power or actual physical damage Reducing fire-related expenditureMore typical than the worst-case scenario, facilities experience both maintenance-related system downtimes and natural phenomena damage such as extreme weather and seismic events. In this case, fixed systems may be rendered inoperable due to the loss of electrical power or actual physical damage. In any of these situations, mobile fire apparatus may fill the gap requirements of the facility as their flexible storage and deployment would protect them from everything but the worst natural disasters. Their further benefit is that a smaller set of mobile apparatus resources may be used to protect a larger amount of infrastructure, especially while in use in a mutual-aid program between facilities and communities. According to the NFPA’s report “Total Cost of Fire in the United States”, fire-related damages and expenditures from 1980 to 2014 have risen from roughly $200B (adjusted for inflation to 2014) to nearly $330B. The greatest expenditure is in fire safety costs in building construction, amounting to $57.4B. Although the overall losses per year as a ratio to protection expenditures has dropped by roughly 70% over the past 30 years, petrochemical facility losses have continued to rise over the same time. In the worst-case petrochemical scenario, fixed systems fail to extinguish a hazard  Petrochemical facility challenges According to the NFPA, refineries or natural gas plants had reported an average of 228 fires or explosions per year through the 1990s. Furthering this data with Marsh’s “100 Largest Losses, 25th edition”, refinery losses have continually expanded throughout the last two decades with 11 of the top 20 largest losses of the past 40 years happening during or after the year 2000. Two primary drivers of this trend are the advanced age of petrochemical facilities and their staggering complexity. As oil margins fall, upstream operational businesses are detrimentally affected by reduced investment in everything to new equipment, maintenance and passive safety systems. There is an observable correlation between a major oil price drop followed by upstream facility fire losses. Even with reduced investment and oil throughput growth rates, US refinery utilisation at the end 2017 was at 96.7%, the highest since 2005 (Marsh, The Impact of the Price of Oil). The short story is that systems and personnel are being asked to do more with less with each passing year. Cost-effective mobile apparatus systems  Mobile fire apparatus is generally more cost-effective to procure when using standardised designs and application methodology. They can access open water sources by either drafting (when in close proximity to the water) or using floating source pumps (for variable level or difficult access water sources). Mobile fire apparatus is generally more cost-effective to procure when using standardized designs and application methodology With this open water access, they can provide significantly more water (upwards of 10,000 GPM or more per system if necessary) than any typical fixed fire pumping solution. Moreover, as their primary benefit, they are easy to move and deploy. This benefit allows them to be utilised at the point of hazard as needed while being easily accessible for service. While fixed systems are installed at “every known” hazard and must be continually maintained to operate effectively, mobile systems may be used sitewide or across facilities. This flexibility reduces overall capital expenditure requirements and establishes a valuable primary and secondary firefighting system depending on the hazard and facility resources. Combining fixed and mobile systems Permanent installation fire suppression systems are a mainstay of modern day firefighting. They provide immediate passive response with little human intervention. However, as facility utilisation is pushed to maximum capacity while fixed systems continually age out without adequate replacement or maintenance, mobile systems will need to both fill the response gap and provide a final wall to total loss incidents. The reality is that both fixed and mobile systems need to work together to provide the safest possible operation. Service and training requirements need to also be maintained to manage an adequate, or even better, exemplary response to hazard control incidents. Managing major facility uptime requires continuous oversight and to drive hazard mitigation standards throughout the organisation, including executive management. A safe, reliable and fully-functional plant is also a profitable and cost-effective plant much like a healthy worker is a better worker. Protect your people and property and you will protecting your company’s future.

Latest POK S.A.S news

POK Releases A Range Of Pump Outlet Dividers Made Of Aluminum Alloy
POK Releases A Range Of Pump Outlet Dividers Made Of Aluminum Alloy

With a pump outlet, the divider is used to supply several pressurized water lines. The most commonly used dividers have 2 or 3 outlets and are equipped with quick couplings at the inlet and outlets. Dividers are usually equipped with shut-off valves on each outlet to open or close the water supply or to switch equipment. With a pump outlet, the divider is used to supply several pressurized water lines. These dividers exist with several valve models, either ball valves, clappered valves or full water way valves. The most bulky are the full water way valves followed by the clappered valves. Dividers with full water way valves are the most expensive to build, but apart from their size they have the advantage of straight-through flow, which means less pressure drop (pressure drop). die-cast aluminum alloy The same applies to ball valves, which have a full passage through the fluid stream. Apart from the question of cost, what differentiates them is the slow closing of the clappered valve, thus avoiding water hammer (overpressure in the upstream pipelines), as in the case of ball valves, as for clappred valves, water hammer can be avoided by ensuring gradual closing, which is what the German and American fire brigades do. These dividers are equipped with feet that maintain a horizontal position on the floor As for the French firemen, POK has never observed them bending to close a ball valve, it is by kicking on the handle that they operate. The plastic spheres of the Americans are not resistant to this, nor are even the operating handles, which is why the company builds its handles out of die-cast aluminum alloy that does not break on impact. These dividers are equipped with feet that maintain a horizontal position on the floor.  valve divider manufacturing These feet were in the shape of an inverted truncated cone in which the company discovered a disadvantage; when falling on the ground the part of the foot intact with the body of the divider can create a crack on the body leading to the explosion and the uncoupling of the foot with the body when the divider is put in water. To avoid this inconvenience POK has modified the shape of the foot to transfer the break in the middle of the foot. All of POK’s valve dividers with a mass of more than 3.5 kilograms are equipped with this device, giving our valve divider manufacturing an excellent safety of use. Both the inlet and the outlets of the company’s valve manifolds are threaded, which makes it possible to attach all types of fittings with all diameters from DN20 to DN200 and two valve outlets up to five outlets. In large valve diameters, beyond DN100, the valves are equipped with reducers for smoother operation. meet all needs All these dividers are made of aluminum alloy which makes them very light. There are, however, some exceptions such as the US NAVY divider built in bronze, a bronze specified by the US Navy. Customers will find at POK a complete range to meet all of the customer’s needs and ideas.

POK Emphasizes On The Process Of Venturi Effect Eductor
POK Emphasizes On The Process Of Venturi Effect Eductor

Optimized according to the percentage of the aspirated product, the eductor’s viscosity, and the duration of the operation, there are several techniques for proportionally mixing various liquids. The simplest, least expensive, and most used by firefighters uses the Venturi effect. This effect is the consequence of a reduction in the flow section of the moving water which lowers the pressure until another liquid can be sucked in, then the premix passes through a regularly increased section which allows the pressure to rise again. Regulating The Suction Percentage The difficulty lies in the fact that a change in the supply pressure of the unit changes the proportion of suction. To remedy this, some manufacturers including POK® insert a valve between the water inlet of the eductor and the inlet of the liquid to be sucked in, which regulates the suction percentage. In particular, this valve makes it possible to adjust the pressure loss (pressure drop) between the inlet and outlet of the eductor. Valve Proportioners The POK proportioners are set for a pressure drop of 35%. Other proportioners in the market have a pressure drop of around 38%. Valveless injectors are economical and relatively imprecise used by British and American fire services  All other units operate without a control valve are called injectors. It has a pressure drop greater than or equal to 40%, allowing it to operate over a wide range of supply pressures.  The valveless injectors are very economical and at the same time relatively imprecise, which is not necessarily a disadvantage with cheap foamers. The injectors are mainly used by the British and American fire services. Usage As Per Economy Valve proportioners are used in Germany and in Germanic regions with a better sense of economy. The percentage of emulsifier in the premix is usually 3% with a knob that ranges from 1% to 6%, and even up to 7% on the Polish standard, but the Poles have chosen this rule to avoid introducing into their country the German, Austrian, Czech, and Russian productions that throughout history have invaded them; but some people claim that this is because of the poor quality of the emulsifier production. Process To Operate A Pump Below a percentage of 1%, a system called around the pump is used, which consists of taking the liquid under pressure from the pump outlet, passing it through an injector, and returning the premix to the pump feed. The injector’s dosing adjustment gives proportions that can vary from 0.1% to 1% and is used to introduce retardants into the liquid to extinguish forest fires. There are other processes where energy from pressure and flow rate is taken to operate a pump and allows very precise dosing with generally high costs and little used for foam production but rather in animal feed.

POK Creates Legend 500 Nozzle To Adapt To The Evolution Of Fires In Confined Spaces
POK Creates Legend 500 Nozzle To Adapt To The Evolution Of Fires In Confined Spaces

To meet the ever-increasing demand from firefighters for automatic nozzles, POK® has carried out in-depth work in partnership with professionals to create a nozzle perfectly adapted to the evolution of fires in confined spaces. It is from this work that was born the latest Legend 500 nozzle, made of aluminum alloy. It features an ultra-compact pressure regulation system, as well as a flow selection system with an indexed operating handle. Its diffuser head with cut teeth in aluminum alloy, offers the possibility to adjust the jet to three positions (straight jet, attack jet, wide spray jet). Extinction Of Electric Fires This nozzle is perfectly adapted to the ‘Pulsing’ technique, it allows firefighters to carry out the ceiling test with very little recoil and a quality of fine droplets allowing very efficient work in urban fires. To unlock the full jet, the user must operate a trigger under the nozzle With the Legend nozzle, Pok has succeeded in achieving the same weight and size as a conventional nozzle of the same flowrate, i. e. approximately 2.5 kg depending on the connection. The Legend nozzle is available in several versions including a nozzle allowing the extinction of electric fires. This version is equipped with a safety device that prevents the nozzle holder from accidentally passing through a full jet. To unlock the full jet, the user must operate a trigger under the nozzle. Ensuring Superior Foam Quality It is also possible to have on the Legend nozzle a flow control valve at 250 l/minute. Equipped with this device, the user cannot exceed this flow rate, which allows him to work on specific fires such as boat fires for example. Finally, there is also a version of the Legend nozzle with a diffuser head equipped with a turbine. This ensures superior foam quality when the Legend lance is equipped with a foam adapter. The Legend nozzle has become the reference for automatic nozzles in France. Many fire brigades or administrations have trusted the latter to equip their teams.

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