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There is a sense in some markets that the paper and pulp industry will decline owing to the digital technologies with which people interact every day. While this might be considered logical, the reality is completely different. In fact, the paper and pulp industry has experienced a steady growth and will continue to do so in 2021. Production of paper increased by more than 450% in the last decades and the demand of paperboard in the world is expected to grow significantly, driven by e-commerce and big retailers increasing their presence in the online sales universe. This sustained growth in production capacity and paper consumption presents several fire risks to companies and exposes communities that develop around paper mills, to the impact of disasters caused by these fire risks. Fire risks in the paper and pulp industry Paper and cardboard are combustible, but this is not the only fire risk found in these types of industries. Raw materials and finished goods storage are sensitive to fire. In addition, the paper making process includes several stages where fires can occur, due to hot surfaces or poor ventilation. The most relevant fire risks on a paper plant are: Storage Areas: As mentioned before, paper and cardboard are combustible. Solid paper blocks and reels have hard surfaces that don’t ignite easily, but usually these reels can suffer minor damages or have loose sheets that significantly increase the fire risk. When paper reels are stacked in columns, gaps in the center can act as chimneys and when fires start in the bottom of the stack, this chimney effect will accelerate smoke and hot air spread, increasing vertical and horizontal flame spread. Wood and Bale storage fire risks Bale storage also presents a high fire risk, as loose materials are always present Raw materials for the paper making process can have two main sources, forestry products (mainly wood) or recycled cardboard and paper. Wood storage presents several challenges, especially due to wood chips that are highly combustible and, in some cases, even explosive. Bale storage also presents a high fire risk, as loose materials are always present. Fire in baled paper is difficult to extinguish and generates heavy smoke. In many recycling facilities, these paper bales are stored outdoors, where paper or rags soaked in flammable liquids, embedded between the paper sheets, can ignite resulting in a fast spreading fire. Chemicals, flammable liquids and gases In addition, it is possible to find different types of chemicals, flammable liquids and gases that are used in the paper making process. These materials have their own fire-related risks that need to be taken in consideration. Production Areas: In pulp factories, there are several long-distance conveyors that transport wood and wood chips. These conveyors constitute a fire risk and the most probable causes of fire are bearing damage, overheating of the conveyor and igniting chips in the environment. IR dryers, a common source of fire After the wood has been transported, chipped and digested, the paper making process becomes extremely humid, due to the large amounts of hot water and steam needed. But, as soon as the pulp fiber sheet starts to dry, the hot surfaces in contact with the paper sheets can be a source of ignition. IR dryers used in the process are also a common source of fire in the paper industry. When the sheet of paper is formed, close contact with reels and bearings moving fast can create static electricity that could ignite loose paper or airborne particles. Problems like these are likely to be more extensive in tissue mills. Paper dust is generated in certain parts of the process, especially where paper shits are slit or cut. Poorly insulated steam pipes lead to fire Poorly insulated steam pipes can ignite paper dust or even their own insulation materials. In addition, paper dust gathers in the ventilation grills of machinery, causing overheating and igniting as well. Heated oil is used in several parts of the process as well and if a malfunction occurs on the Hot Oil Roll systems, leaks might occur, exposing hot surfaces to this oil and causing ignitions. A paper mill has hydraulically operated machinery, where leaks or sprays might ignite as well. Service Areas: As in many other manufacturing facilities, several service areas can be found. Electrical and network equipment rooms have an inherent fire risk due to damaged wires or equipment, overheating or short circuits in high voltage circuits. Transformer and generator areas entail fire risks as well. High fire risk for boiler rooms Flammable gas distribution systems can be ignition sources, in case of leaks or damaged pipes or valves Hot water and steam are key components for the paper making process. For this reason, paper plants use high capacity boilers that can be powered by flammable liquids or gases. A high fire risk can be considered for boiler rooms. Flammable gas distribution systems can be ignition sources, in case of leaks or damaged pipes or valves. In addition to the fire risks mentioned in these areas, many maintenance operations can also pose fire risk, especially when hot works are being performed. Sparks caused by welding or the use of certain tools can ignite paper sheets or dust in the air. Poor housekeeping and buildup of paper dust, for example, increases the risk associated with maintenance and construction works. Prevention, the first line of defense According to the Health and Safety Executive from the United Kingdom, 60% of fires on paper mills are caused by machine faults and poor housekeeping. The first line of defense to avoid fire risks in paper plants is prevention. As mentioned before, a high number of fires in these types of facilities occur because of poor housekeeping and machine malfunction. The key is to identify the risks and possible ignition sources, and apply measures to minimize them. As in many industries, fire protection has two main components: Passive and Active protection. Passive fire protection measures Passive measures include fire rated walls, ceilings, and floors in the most critical areas. Chemical storage areas should be physically separated from other dangerous areas, if this is not possible then the walls separating areas should be fire rated and materials must be stored in a way that minimizes the risk of fire spread by radiation or conduction. Proper compartmentalization and intumescent protection of structural elements should be part of the package as well. Passive measures include proper ventilation and smoke control. As mentioned before, paper dust is a major fire risk, which is why ventilation and cleaning of hoods over the paper machine is important to minimize the possibility of ignition. Fire resisting construction should be designed with the following goals in mind: Protection of escape routes Form compartments to contain fires that might occur Separate areas of higher fire risk Protect load bearing and structural members to minimize risk of collapse Sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels Active fire protection includes sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels to support fire brigades Active fire protection includes sprinkler systems, gas extinguishing systems and hose reels to support fire brigades. Finished goods stored indoors should be protected with sprinkler systems and the same should be considered for chemical storage areas and certain raw materials. Paper bales, ideally should be protected by sprinklers that are suitably designed to cope with the height and located, in all cases, 3 meters above the level of bales stacked vertically (which should not exceed 5 meters height). Spark detectors in hoods, pipes and ventilation systems Dangerous sparks could be generated in several parts of the paper making process, which is why spark detectors must be installed in hoods, pipes, and ventilation systems. Water spray and CO2 systems can be used to protect machinery against these risks. Means to fight fires, like extinguishers and hose reels, should be provided to support fire brigades. All the elements should be properly identified and all personnel should be trained and made aware of the location of such devices. Importance of fire alarms Fire alarms are required in all paper mills and fire alarm call points should be provided in all locations, according to international guidelines, such as NFPA 72 or EN54. The spread of flames and smoke in paper, wood and chemical storage might become extremely fast. For this reason, early detection is critical. Many technologies might be applied in the different areas of a paper plant. Nevertheless, there are dusty or humid areas where regular heat or smoke detectors might fail under certain circumstances. For these areas, especially located outdoors, innovative state-of-the-art detection solutions might be applied, like Video Fire Detection (VFD). NFPA 72 standard for flame and smoke detection NFPA 72 provides guidelines to implement this technology for flame and smoke detection NFPA 72 provides guidelines to implement this technology for flame and smoke detection, opening interesting alternatives for designers and fire protection engineers. Many EHS managers and fire protection professionals selected VFD, because it is the only fire detection solution that effectively covered their needs. Many engineers, specialized in fire protection for paper plants, explained that they tested linear heat detection, aspiration smoke detection, IR/UV detectors and even beams, but none of these technologies performed as they needed on the dirtiest or more humid areas. Video Fire Detection (VFD) solutions Outdoor storage areas are often unprotected, because deploying flame or heat detection in large open areas can be costly and mostly ineffective. VFD solutions can detect smoke and flames in outdoor conditions, allowing the monitoring and protection of wood and paper bales in large areas. Fire detection and alarm systems should be designed with the following goals: Minimize risk of fires, including the use of fire detection technology in areas where regular detection technologies cannot be implemented or are not practical. Minimize risk of flame and smoke spread, with state-of-the-art detection algorithms that guarantee fast and effective detection. Also, reliable algorithms minimize the possibility of nuance or unwanted alarms. In case of a fire, fast detection gives occupants life-saving time to reach to a place of safety, before the flames and smoke have spread to dangerous levels. Global production of paper and pulp reached 490 million tons in 2020, with many industries and markets depended on the paper and pulp supply chain. That is why innovative ways to protect this supply chain, are key to sustain the paper market growth in the future.
Within traditional commercial and industrial firefighting systems, engineers have primarily focused on permanent installation designs rather than entertaining alternative or supplemental mobile firefighting systems. Permanent installation design is typically better understood, supported, and supplied throughout the fire protection engineering and manufacturing community. However, mobile firefighting systems provide unique solutions and advantages compared to their permanent installation cousins such as flexible deployment, simpler servicing, improved economy, and much higher performance availability. The combination of both systems is frequently the most strategic solution for the facility operator. Limitations of fixed installation systems Permanent installation (fixed) systems include everything from sprinklers, foam systems, primary watermain pumps, and the plethora of piping in between. A large refinery complex will need to address various hazard mitigation and control problems that span both hardware and personnel needs. In the event standard hazard mitigation safety procedures and equipment have failed, the facility immediately initiates a hazard control operation. Passive fixed systems automatically engage the hazard through an array of sensors, mechanical triggers, and control algorithms. A properly designed system with adequate hazard coverage, preplanning, preventative maintenance, and testing will successfully terminate the hazard, while firefighting personnel respond and ensure no further hazards develop. This conceptual approach relies on hardware and personnel all operating as planned…. Combining permanent and mobile apparatus “According to plan” would never have any failures or fires, but history has a different script. In the worst-case petrochemical scenario, fixed systems fail to extinguish a hazard putting the entire response on human and mobile hardware resources. This would include but is not limited to firetrucks, mobile high-flow pumping systems, large mobile monitors, foam proportioning units, and large diameter layflat hose. This type of response escalates into a larger scale operation, sometimes involving agencies beyond the facility operator itself. Although a low probability event, the risk to life and property is significantly substantial. Fixed systems may be rendered inoperable due to the loss of electrical power or actual physical damage Reducing fire-related expenditureMore typical than the worst-case scenario, facilities experience both maintenance-related system downtimes and natural phenomena damage such as extreme weather and seismic events. In this case, fixed systems may be rendered inoperable due to the loss of electrical power or actual physical damage. In any of these situations, mobile fire apparatus may fill the gap requirements of the facility as their flexible storage and deployment would protect them from everything but the worst natural disasters. Their further benefit is that a smaller set of mobile apparatus resources may be used to protect a larger amount of infrastructure, especially while in use in a mutual-aid program between facilities and communities. According to the NFPA’s report “Total Cost of Fire in the United States”, fire-related damages and expenditures from 1980 to 2014 have risen from roughly $200B (adjusted for inflation to 2014) to nearly $330B. The greatest expenditure is in fire safety costs in building construction, amounting to $57.4B. Although the overall losses per year as a ratio to protection expenditures has dropped by roughly 70% over the past 30 years, petrochemical facility losses have continued to rise over the same time. In the worst-case petrochemical scenario, fixed systems fail to extinguish a hazard Petrochemical facility challenges According to the NFPA, refineries or natural gas plants had reported an average of 228 fires or explosions per year through the 1990s. Furthering this data with Marsh’s “100 Largest Losses, 25th edition”, refinery losses have continually expanded throughout the last two decades with 11 of the top 20 largest losses of the past 40 years happening during or after the year 2000. Two primary drivers of this trend are the advanced age of petrochemical facilities and their staggering complexity. As oil margins fall, upstream operational businesses are detrimentally affected by reduced investment in everything to new equipment, maintenance and passive safety systems. There is an observable correlation between a major oil price drop followed by upstream facility fire losses. Even with reduced investment and oil throughput growth rates, US refinery utilisation at the end 2017 was at 96.7%, the highest since 2005 (Marsh, The Impact of the Price of Oil). The short story is that systems and personnel are being asked to do more with less with each passing year. Cost-effective mobile apparatus systems Mobile fire apparatus is generally more cost-effective to procure when using standardised designs and application methodology. They can access open water sources by either drafting (when in close proximity to the water) or using floating source pumps (for variable level or difficult access water sources). Mobile fire apparatus is generally more cost-effective to procure when using standardized designs and application methodology With this open water access, they can provide significantly more water (upwards of 10,000 GPM or more per system if necessary) than any typical fixed fire pumping solution. Moreover, as their primary benefit, they are easy to move and deploy. This benefit allows them to be utilised at the point of hazard as needed while being easily accessible for service. While fixed systems are installed at “every known” hazard and must be continually maintained to operate effectively, mobile systems may be used sitewide or across facilities. This flexibility reduces overall capital expenditure requirements and establishes a valuable primary and secondary firefighting system depending on the hazard and facility resources. Combining fixed and mobile systems Permanent installation fire suppression systems are a mainstay of modern day firefighting. They provide immediate passive response with little human intervention. However, as facility utilisation is pushed to maximum capacity while fixed systems continually age out without adequate replacement or maintenance, mobile systems will need to both fill the response gap and provide a final wall to total loss incidents. The reality is that both fixed and mobile systems need to work together to provide the safest possible operation. Service and training requirements need to also be maintained to manage an adequate, or even better, exemplary response to hazard control incidents. Managing major facility uptime requires continuous oversight and to drive hazard mitigation standards throughout the organisation, including executive management. A safe, reliable and fully-functional plant is also a profitable and cost-effective plant much like a healthy worker is a better worker. Protect your people and property and you will protecting your company’s future.
Two-day indoor and outdoor press event in Ulm with innovations, world firsts and surprising news: Presentation of the FireBull tracked fire engine in cooperation with Kässbohrer Geländefahrzeug AG, expansion of the AirCore fire-fighting technology with the TLF AirCore and AirCore TAF60 and partnerships for the future. At the press conference in Ulm on 24th and 25th September 2020, Magirus demonstrates its comprehensive expertise and many years of know-how, especially in the field of off-road and forest fire solutions. The company presents numerous innovations and world firsts on both days. vegetation fire-fighting The launch of the Magirus FireBull takes place on Friday at the company’s own test site Magirus CEO Marc Diening summarizes the direction as follows: “Today we are presenting our solutions for the special requirements of off-road operations, which fire departments and other emergency services are increasingly experiencing today and will continue to do in the future. Especially for vegetation fire-fighting, we are presenting ideas and concepts for the future based on our decades of international experience in this field, all of which are available right now, safe and reliably ready for use.” The launch of the Magirus FireBull takes place on Friday at the company’s own test site. The tracked fire engine, which is ready for series production, was built on a “PowerBully” caterpillar chassis from Kässbohrer Geländefahrzeug AG - one of the world’s renowned providers of tracked vehicles. Thanks to its high payload with low ground pressure - and a fording depth of 1,400 mm, it can be used not only in impassable terrain but also on moors and in swampy areas. sufficient spare capacity In addition to a 10,000 liter extinguishing agent tank, the AirCore extinguishing turbine with a capacity of up to 3,500 liters per minute as well as equipment spaces for loading specific equipment are available in the AirCore version. The PowerBully 18 T chassis has a gross vehicle weight of 30,000 kg. With an operating weight of around 26 tones, the vehicle has sufficient spare capacity for individual needs and equipment Where wheeled vehicles reach their limits, the caterpillar drive provides the necessary agility combined with a high level of driving comfort - regardless of the surface. Magirus demonstrates a total of three new vehicles in which the highly efficient AirCore water mist technology is used. mobile vehicle concept With the new TLF AirCore, Magirus combines the extinguishing turbine on a lifting device, a tank with 3,500 liters of extinguishing agent and the all-terrain Iveco Eurocargo chassis to create a new type of mobile vehicle concept, which in terms of performance features and equipment picks up on and further develops established, tried-and-tested forest fire solutions from countries such as France and Italy. It meets all requirements for optimal performance and safety in the field. As announced at the 2019 press conference, Magirus is taking the next step with its AirCore TAF extinguishing robot As announced at the 2019 press conference, Magirus is taking the next step with its AirCore TAF extinguishing robot. By reducing the overall height from 2.15 meters to less than 2 meters, the range of applications of the vehicle is considerably extended. For the first time, the AirCore technology can also be used to extinguish fires in underground and multi-story car parks - places where the recovery of vehicles was not possible before. remote control technology Even burning vehicles can now be brought safely and quickly out of the danger zone by the AirCore TAF, as an accompanying and/or subsequent cooling can be carried out during the clearing operation. In view of the current problems in the recovery of burning electric vehicles, this opens up completely new possibilities. Using camera and remote control technology, these operations can be directed from a safe distance. At the same time, the turbine output has been increased by up to 6,000 liters per minute. Besides the TLF Aircore and the AirCore TAF60, many other innovations were presented on the first day. These include, for example, the production model of the Alpha Wolf R1 - a tactical deployment robot - as well as remote-controlled units for the detection and prevention of potential dangers via air surveillance and by means of transmission of HD video live communication from the company Alpha Robotics. push technological progress Many of these new products, will be on display on the Magirus stand at the FLORIAN trade fair in Dresden During the press conference, Magirus and Alpha Robotics announced their future collaboration. With his interdisciplinary team, Alpha Robotics Managing Director Oliver Rasche wants to push technological progress in fire departments and disaster control: “We look forward to working with Magirus to find new ways to make the operations and work of fire-fighters and emergency services even easier, better and safer in the future by developing and employing innovative technology and comprehensive tactics.” The company also presented other new products and innovations, including new versions of established vehicle concepts such as the CCFM (French: Camion Citerne Forêts Moyen) forest fire engine to French specifications or the new Magirus MLF (medium pumper), which for the first time is based on an Iveco Daily 4x4 chassis with a gross vehicle weight of 7 tones, automatic transmission and a permanently installed pump. disaster control vehicle The disaster control vehicle LF KatS and the fire engine TLF 4000 are also benefiting from numerous extensions and innovations considering the latest requirements and standards. With the agile fire engine TLF 2000 with its reduced wheelbase, automatic transmission and integrated, internal 2,000-litre water tank, Magirus closes the gap in compact, all-terrain fire engines. Many of these, as well as other innovations and new products, will be on display on the Magirus stand at the FLORIAN trade fair in Dresden from 8th to 10th October 2020.
25 young people began their professional futures at Magirus. Team spirit and enthusiasm for technology are important prerequisites. 25 new apprentices have been taking the first steps of their professional careers. They are occupied in eight different vocations, including vehicle mechatronics, industrial mechanics, and electronics or construction mechanics, both in Germany and Austria. Twenty-three of them are starting their professional futures at Magirus's joint site with Iveco in Ulm, located in the Danube River Valley. Two new apprentices have started apprenticeships in Kainbach (near Graz, Austria), as an administrative assistant and a chassis engineering technician respectively. In Ulm, the number of apprentices has increased slightly compared to the previous year. In addition, Magirus is again training young people in commercial occupations. important prerequisites An important part of the varied program was instruction in communication and team cooperation After the official welcome, the apprentices went to the Youth Training Center of the German Alpine Association (JDAV) to get to know each other better. An important part of the varied program was instruction in communication and team cooperation. These are important prerequisites for the upcoming apprenticeship as well as for work in general throughout Magirus, which is very practice-oriented. Furthermore, the idea that professions such as construction mechanics or vehicle mechatronics are more for men has been long obsolete. This is shown by apprentices such as Ronja Eisert or Anja Verena Krausz. fire engine production site Like Anja, Ronja has always been enthusiastic about technology, but was uncertain whether a technical apprenticeship was right for her. She thus wanted to first complete a practical internship with Magirus to find out more about the field. "The internship really encouraged me to apply for an apprenticeship as an industrial mechanic with Magirus. I was inspired by the idea of learning a profession that lets you construct vehicles that will later save lives," she says. As Magirus wants to educate even more professionals in the future, the move of the training workshop was organized this year. It is now located close to the fire engine production site. The apprentices played a significant role in reorganizing and equipping the new premises. The formal opening of the workshop will soon take place. Magirus offers young people who are fascinated by technology and like to "get their hands dirty" a large selection of training opportunities with very good prospects.
The innovative, all-terrain tank pumper with the efficient AirCore extinguishing turbine mounted on a lifting device opens up new, previously unavailable possibilities for effective forest and surface fire-fighting. Premiere for the TLF AirCore: For the first time, Magirus presents the new turbine-aided fire-fighting vehicle to representatives of the press, partners and invited guests on 24 and 25 September 2020. After the unveiling, the new vehicle was shown directly in action on the plant's own off-road test track. The TLF AirCore from Magirus combines the proven AirCore technology on a lifting device with a 3,500 liter extinguishing agent container and a particularly off-road capable chassis and is therefore able to bring the extinguishing turbine with its own relevant extinguishing agent supply to the deployment sites better than ever before. fire-fighting solutions This new type of mobile vehicle adopts and further develops established, field-tested forest fire-fighting solutions from countries such as France and Italy in terms of performance features and equipment. With a height of around 3.4 meters, a width of 2.5 meters and an overall length of almost 7 meters with a wheelbase of only 3,690 mm, the TLF AirCore is compact and maneuverable. The necessary power and traction are provided by an Iveco Eurocargo FF150-32WS chassis The necessary power and traction are provided by an Iveco Eurocargo FF150-32WS chassis with an engine output of 235 kW (320 hp), Allison Transmission and the new generation Automatic Drivetrain Management System (ADM system). It complies with the latest emission standards, EURO Vid, with HI-SCR passive exhaust aftertreatment technology. This prevents undesirable cleaning of the exhaust system during operation. extinguishing agent supply Due to the ideal coordination of chassis, superstructure and extinguishing technology, the TLF AirCore meets all requirements for optimum performance and safety in off-road applications. To achieve the lowest possible center of gravity, for example, the tank has been lowered, while at the same time attention has been paid to a mass distribution as evenly as possible between the axles. Thanks to a high ground clearance of 390 millimeters with single tires, the vehicle masters high ramp and slope angles with ease and enables a high fording capacity of up to 860 mm. In addition to the pump & roll function, self-protection nozzles ensure maximum safety for the crew. Included in the extinguishing agent supply are 300 liters of self-protection volume, 3,000 liters of water and 200 liters of foam agent. These are used optimally thanks to the AirCore and its efficient water mist technology. foam proportioning system The AirCore MFT60-H extinguishing turbine can be raised by up to 800 millimeters and rotated or tilted through 360 degrees using a lifting device. The increased performance of the AirCore with a flow rate of up to 6,000 liters per minute enables maximum throwing distances and high penetration depths in both industrial applications and vegetation fire-fighting. The extensive use of wetting agents is also possible. The TLF AirCore controls the entire extinguishing technology from the protected driver's cab A new, additional monitor on the AirCore, together with the turbine, ensures that different quantities of water are spread in different directions, thus ensuring maximum flexibility. The TLF AirCore controls the entire extinguishing technology from the protected driver's cab. Spacious equipment compartments, the CaddiSys NetzMix foam proportioning system, a high-pressure pump and heat-protected pipes round off the vehicle concept. pressure control system In addition, numerous options such as a tire pressure control system, winches or an overpressure cabin are available. With the help of a trailer, the capacity of extinguishing agents can be additionally increased, enabling the vehicle to operate autonomously for up to 20 minutes. This represents previously unavailable possibilities for effective vegetation fire-fighting.
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